Fast & Easy Conversion online


Digital documents from PDFs into Word with a few clicks. Our PDF-to-Word Converter has OCR engines, and that means you can convert your scanned PDFs into editable Word files. While you want to make changes to your PDF documents, just visit our free PDF online converter and transform your files to an editable format in seconds. Fortunately, you will make changes to your PDF by directly converting it into a word file using our word to pdf converter online.

To open your PDF file without converting it into a Word document, simply open up the file directly where you stored it (for example, double-click on your PDF file in the Documents folder). You should have usage of Microsoft Word (but you still need to get a file to be Word-formatted), you can convert it using Google Docs as well. In case your file is stored in the cloud, you can click Dropbox or Google Drive icons to import the PDF to convert.

You can also convert PDFs from Dropbox, Google Drive, iCloud, Gmail, Box, and OneDrive to editable Microsoft Word documents. Fast software and advanced conversion technologies let you turn PDF texts, forms, and tables into editable Word documents.

Once your files are converted to an editable Word documents, you can make necessary changes without having difficulties. The PDF to Docx converter available at DupliChecker givsera you to convert your file into an editable Word document without the hassle.

With the WPS PDF to Word Converter, you can upload batches of files, but your converted files are sent via email, so you will have to supply an email address in order to really get your documents. This free PDF to Word Converter is made for Windows, and it will spare you the issues related to lengthy uploads or download times, which are usually seen with different online tools. With the WPS PDF to Word Converter, you can select pages that you would like to convert, arrange them in any way that you would like, and export a fresh document in a variety of formats, all while keeping the formatting and layout intact.

Not merely is our conversion tool free, online, and available anytime you will need it, but we also let users convert up to 2 extra files monthly, free of charge. There is no need to type out every word yourself; you can translate a whole PDF into Word in just seconds using our PDF-to-Doc Converter. The Best PDF To Word Converter Our PDF Converter is the best option for your file change needs, whether you require to convert your PDF into a Word document, an Excel spreadsheet, a PowerPoint, or perhaps a PNG or JPG.

Our online services preserve the formatting of the files you upload, and we deliver quality PDF-to-Word conversions. Once you make changes in your transformed Word file, you can convert it back again to PDF again using our Word to PDF tool and protect it using PDF Locker Tool.

Once you are able to create an SSH tunnel account


Your IP will be included with the information for the SSH account. Unlike some other free SSH sites, where you have to make certain you copy down the details (username, password, hostname, IP address, port number, expiration date) somewhere (or on a notebook), servers keep your account details. server is one of the very most powerful tools out there, where you will not have to convert the hostname of any SSH Account into an Ip.

With this website, you will get free ssh ssl with complete access and a faster connection. If you don’t own an SSH Account, create a free SSH account, and you will be taken to a signup page. You can also follow this tutorial to make a FREE Premium account at any SSH site. There are plenty of SSH websites that you can create and set up in your VPN application.

Since creating a secure shell connection requires both client and the server components, you should ensure that they are installed on your local machine and your remote one, respectively. Now that you are able to create a interconnection to your server using Secure Shell, you should take several additional steps to enhance your SSH security. Use various strategies to restricting usage of SSH on your server, or use services that block anyone aiming to use brute force methods to access your server.

For users used to working on graphical desktop environments using virtual network computing (VNC), you can fully encrypt connections using secure shell tunneling. If you’re not by using a Virtual Private Network (VPN), connecting over RDP is significantly less secure than using SSH, when you are exposed to the Internet directly. SSH is a secure connection network, and if you work with that network, will produce an option for authenticating a remote user before hooking up to the network. A secure connection on a non-trusted network is made between your SSH client and SSH server.

You can also hook up to a remote server through SSH tunnels from a Windows machine using PuTTY. To connect to an Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud Linux instance using SSH from Windows, complete the steps in Connecting to a Linux instance from Windows using PuTTY.

I would like to add new user accounts that are capable of connecting to my Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud Linux (Amazon EC2) instance using SSH. The service account can now manage its SSH keypair, and it can hook up to a selected target instance using SSH. In this tutorial, a service account generates a brand new key match for each and every SSH connection that it creates, but you can adjust that to work on a schedule that best fits your applications needs.

Call the create_ssh_key solution to create a momentary SSH key for the service account this tutorial, and add a public key to the service account with a timer that you can specify. The create_ssh_key method also takes in a expiration value, indicating just how long the open public key remains valid. If your public key SSH file has some other name from that in the sample code, change the name of the file to install the configuration you are currently using.

Use the chmod command to switch the.ssh/authorized_keys files permissions to 600. Changing the data permissions limits reading or writing and then new_user. When connecting to SSH on either server IP, the settings can be changed in server according to which user has been used.

Next, create and commence the application which can SSH in one instance to the other. You use the service account to give your iphone app SSH access, which app will connect in one inposition to a new via SSH. Then, an SSH server connects to the actual application servers — typically, those are either on a single machine, or at the same datacenter, as the SSH server.

Whenever you try to connect to a Windows server, you must supply the username that is valid for the account that you are employing to achieve remote access. Before you are able to use the GitHub CLI to add a SSH key to your account, you must authenticate with the GitHub CLI. Because your source instance is associated with a service account, Cloud Client Libraries for Python are able to use your applications default credentials to authenticate as something account, also to use roles you granted that service account previously. To conclude, if you are hoping to understand how to create a SSH Account, convert the hostname into IP Addresses (optional), and pass the account details into your HTTP User Application, this post is for you.

Premium SSH & VPN accounts with High-quality servers For our Superior SSH accounts, our servers are employing SSDs which should have better performance. We can enhance your data security in your computers while you are accessed on internet, the SSH account is similar to an intermediate of your net connection, the SSH will give you the encryption for any data you read, the new one will send to the other server. SSH also offers a way of protecting the results traffic for virtually every given application using Port Forwarding, essentially tunneling any TCP/IP port through SSH.

In the navigation menu, find the service & tap -> Free SSH Tunnel. Another way to check on whether your OpenSSH server is installed effectively and accepting connections is to try running the command ssh localhost in the Terminal Prompt once again.

Bagaimana Cara Memilih Judi Slot Online?


Pikirkan website web kami serupa tempat bagi orang2 yang suka tampil togel. Anda karet pemain memiliki kedudukan utama dalam film kami. Tim abdi hanyalah tindakan pendukung dalam permainan judi togel online. Itu sebabnya kami melaksanakan semuanya untuk Anda. Apa yang abdi lakukan adalah mencoba untuk memenuhi semata permintaan Anda begitu mencoba untuk menjalankan tren lotre diseluruh dunia termasuk vendor lotre online. Ide kami adalah meluluskan Anda informasi sisi termasuk fitur luar biasa, bonus, keandalan dsb.

Informasi di situs kami berasal dari kepandaian kami sendiri beserta permainan tebak poin atu togel khusus dan Agen Pertaruhan Slot atau dari penelitian terperinci abdi. Kami berjanji untuk memberi Anda informasi yang berguna, akurat, dan relevan. Abdi mega fafa di sini untuk membantu Anda pada pencegahan penipuan dan menikmati pengalaman dalam permainan togel Dikau sepenuhnya.

Tetapi kami pula membutuhkan tanggapan Dikau hanya untuk mengasi bahwa kami menerima permintaan Anda. Serupa pemain togel, Dikau dapat mengandalkan abdi untuk membantu Dikau memilih yang terkemuka.

Ada sejumlah besar website web yang menyiapkan kesempatan untuk permainan togel yang cuma dengan sekali klik. Beberapa dari itu sah dan tenang untuk digunakan, akan tetapi beberapa dari mereka adalah fiktif, atau hanya penipuan. Kita mencoba untuk membuatnya lebih mudah untuk menemukan situs web judi togel yang tepat untuk Kamu melalui ulasan meresap kami tentang yang terbaik.

Kami telah merasai situs web togel yang sedang redut sekarang. Situs yang telah kami mainkan dan situs tempat Anda meminta informasi dari kami. Menyunggi penulis kami pula dapat membantu Dikau dengan saran, tata, dan tips tentang cara meningkatkan kesempatan Anda untuk memenangkan togel.

Dibawah ini Telaah dari Agen Pertaruhan Slot Online?

  • Apakah Judi Slot berlisensi

Itu adalah hal pertama yang kami cari ketika menelusuri situs web. Kami membaca vokal kecil untuk Kamu! – Kami meneropong halaman FAQ, pekarangan kebijakan Privasi, pekarangan Syarat dan Komitmen, pada dasarnya taman yang biasanya bukan dibaca oleh pemain.

  • Antarmuka situs web agen

Bagaimana kelihatannya sebenarnya bisa dianggap banyak – kalau dibuat terburu-buru sebagai scam atau jika itu nyata.

  • Tahapan Sangat penting

Kita memeriksa bagaimana peringkatnya, ketika domain terdaftar, apakah dilindungi sama penelusuran aman mbah google, perangkat lunak antivirus, dll.

  • Kami merasai sendiri

Itulah jalan terbaik untuk mengamati apa yang salah dan apa yang benar saat permainan judi togel on line.

  • Jelajahi web

Abdi mencoba membaca seluruh pendapat Anda tentang Judi Slot yang tersisa sebagai komentar di web. Pemain lain dapat mencari ilmu dari pengalaman Dikau.

Penguasaan penipuan adalah tumpuan pertama dan tersohor kami. Bahaya tersebar luas di web dan peluang untuk menjadi korban penipuan lain cukup terlihat. Saat itulah kita melangkah. Kami menyampaikan Anda konten yang akurat, relevan, serta diteliti sehingga Kamu dapat membuat dekrit berdasarkan informasi serta tidak pernah terpenjara dalam penipuan. Tim kami menjamin pembaruan terkini dari bermacam-macam Agen Judi Slot online.

Keahlian tim abdi didasarkan pada intensitas timbal balik serta pengalaman bertahun-tahun di bermain game togel online. Kami ingin Anda tetap tenteram! Itu sebabnya abdi menyarankan Anda sering datang ke sini untuk memeriksa susunan Agen Judi Slot yang disetujui dan memilih yang tepat untuk Anda.

Agen togel terpecaya Apa Yang Terbaik untuk Dikau

Agen togel terpecaya Apa Yang Terbaik untuk Dikau

Agen togel terpecaya Apa Yang Terbaik untuk Kamu! Anda ingin mendapatkan karcis dalam permainan betting togel internasional itu, bukan? Kami bukan menyalahkan Anda, seperti kami! Berita baiknya adalah Anda siap dengan mudah berbuat itu tanpa harus melakukan perjalanan internasional. Masukkan kembali paspor Anda ke di laci dan dengarkan.

Agen togel terpecaya memberi Anda alat & kesederhanaan yang Dikau butuhkan untuk membeli tiket lotre di kenyamanan rumah Dikau. Jika Anda sudah biasa terbiasa dengan website web tersebut. Peluang Anda telah melaksanakan riset untuk menabalkan yang terbaik. Kemungkinannya adalah penelitian sudah mengembalikan puluhan website untuk dipilih.

Jadi distributor togel mana yang tepat untuk Dikau? Mungkin sulit untuk menjawab pertanyaan & Anda harus melaksanakan banyak penelitian. Jenis-jenis dalam permainan togel yang tersedia. Opsi pembayaran, opsi penarikan uang, fitur kesentosaan dan bonus semata harus diperiksa. Untungnya, kami telah bisa mempermudah tugas Dikau untuk mengetahui jalan dalam bermain judi togel online.

Alih-alih mencerap beberapa situs web dan membaca seluruh perbandingan agen togel itu. Anda sebaiknya mempertimbangkan untuk mengambil kuis Distributor togel terpecaya. Ini adalah salah wahid alat paling sedang dan paling akurat untuk pemilihan wakil togel terpecaya kawakan.

Tentamen ini berfokus pada sejumlah perilaku dan karakteristik yang dianggap penting oleh orang-orang yang berbeda. Tersebut berfokus pada pertanyaan seperti:

  • Jenis togel dan permainan apa-apa yang Anda nikmati?
  • Seberapa pentingkah bonus untuk pemilihan agen lotere yang tepat?
  • Pentingkah ratifikasi harga bagi Kamu?
  • Seberapa pentingkah layanan pelanggan bagi Anda?
  • Metode pemesanan tiket online apa-apa yang paling Kamu sukai?

Berdasarkan wejangan yang Anda berikan dalam kuis sempit ini, kami bakal dapat merekomendasikan agen togel yang memiliki layanan yang akan Anda sukai. Setelah Anda mendapatkan hasil, Anda pula akan diberikan daftar fitur. Karakteristik itu menunjukkan dengan tepat mengapa opsi ini adalah yang tepat untuk Anda.

Apa-apa yang Perlu Dikau Ketahui dalam Bermain Togel Online?

Agen togel terpecaya Terlisensi dan Kesohor

Kami tahu kalau sebagian dari Dikau masih berhati-hati dalam melakukan pembelian online. Percayalah, kami sedang sering mengalami perasaan serupa. Ini ialah alasan utama apa sebab semua agen togel yang termasuk dalam rekomendasi diuji serta memiliki reputasi. Tersebut sudah ada sepanjang bertahun-tahun, mengelola untuk membangun reputasi mereka dengan berfokus di layanan pelanggan kesakinahan atau bintang.

Saat ini, kuis merekomendasikan lima dari banyak agen togel online pada luar sana. Abdi bekerja keras untuk memverifikasi keaslian & keamanan peluang pemesanan tiket tersebut pra membuat keputusan konklusi dan memutuskan apakah akan merekomendasikan. Olehkarena itu kami terus berupaya memberi Anda cenderung kemungkinan untuk dipilih, daftar agen togel yang disetujui akan berpotensi tumbuh di waktu dekat.

Masih belum yakin? Ingin meneliti sedikit lebih penuh tentang pengalaman orang2 lain sebelum menabalkan distributor togel yang direkomendasikan kuis? Anda dapat menjumpai forum Agen togel terpecaya untuk berbagi informasi dengan pemuja lotre lainnya serta menjawab pertanyaan terusan. Selamat mencoba serta ingat untuk merasai semua peluang pemesanan tiket yang visibel dengan cara Kamu secara bertanggung jawab.

Barangkali itu saja uraian dari artikel abdi mengenai agen togel terpecaya terkemuka untuk Anda seleksi dalam memainkan game tebak angka online. Semoga dengan memilikinya informasi ini kian mudah untuk Dikau memenangkan permainan togel online. Selamat tampil dan semoga sukses!

Kupas Tuntas Sekarang Juga Superioritas Dari Situs magnum slot Terpercaya .

Kupas Tuntas Sekarang Juga Superioritas Dari Situs magnum slot Terpercaya .

Menyelisik sebuah kelebihan daripada situs permainan yang bersifat perjudian memang tidak akan tersedia habisnya. Yang dimana sekarang pula khasiat yang dimiliki sama situs tersebut pusat dibantu oleh / adanya teknologi yang semakin marak hendak kecanggihannya. Jadi tidak heran jika sebuah situs yang menampung permainan judi slot tersebut kini menyebrangi peningkatan yang bertambah terdepan. Dan lagi pula sekarang seakan hendak, kecanggihan teknologi penuh sekali masyarakat yang memanfaatkannya dalam taktik mendapatkan sebuah keuntungan dari permainan judi slot. Dimana waktu ini permainan yang disebutkan telah dapat dimainkan oleh seseorang di sebuah magnum slot menggunakan handphone maupun komputer pangku.

Serta artikel saat ini sesuai dengan judulnya, yang dimana akan mengupas hingga tuntas apa-apa saja yang sebagai kelebihan dari satu buah situs permainan bersifat perjudian tereebut. Yang dimana sekarang lagi banyak masyarakat yang tertarik dan rintang memainkan sebuah sajian slot di web kerprcayaannya. Oleh benih itu, untuk dikau jangan hanya pokok masuk dan bergabung saja pada satu situs yang kalian mengakui tersebut. Karena dikau juga perlu mengerti apa saja kelebihan yang dimiliki sama situs tersebut. Yang mana nantinya anda tidak merasakan sebuah kekecewaaan di tengah pusat permainan berlangsung.

Berikut Dibawah Ini Beberapa Superioritas Situs magnum slot Yang Perlu Dikau Kupas Tuntas

Memiliki jenis permain slot yang bermacam macam versi

Untuk dikau para pecinta produk judi slot tersebut, jangan sampai cela memilih sebuah web yang mewadahi game tersebut. Mengapa demikian? Hak tersebut dikarenakan jika anda khilaf memilih sebuah Situs magnum slot , ditakutkan akan terjadi suatu hal yang bukan sama sekali anda ingin. Yang dimana laksana tersebut misalnya sebagaimana peniupan dan serupa hal lainnya lagi. Perlu anda ketahui yang dimana sekarang sebuah permainan betting slot mengalami kemajuankronologi, pertambahan, pertumbuhan, perubahan, perurutan, urut-urutan, yang luar biasa. Mengapa tidak? Hal itu dapat kamu lihat pada satu situs online yang dimana menyediakan berbagai macam versi permainan slot.

Dan dimana semata versi slot yang diberikan atau ditampilkan pada sebuah web untuk seseorang mainkan dapat memberikan satu buah keuntungan bagi setiap individu yang makbul memenangkannya. Dan butuh anda ketahui pula bahwa semua corak slot ini dimiliki oleh sebuah situa yang kini pusat dipercaya dan telah di rekomendasikan sama masyarakat dari bermacam-macam kalangan. Karena dari semua versi ini terbukti memiliki keseruan yang berbeda. Terlintas permainan yang bertentangan versi dan penampilan tersebut, dapat dan mampu menarik minat semua orang paling utama para pemain yang bergabung pada web tersebut.

Menyediakan jackpot dan bonus sambungan secara besar total

Mendapatkan sebuah pelajaran atau yang kerap di sebut jackpot pada permainan judi slot ini ialah sebuah keinginan serta tujuan yang dimiliki oleh seseorang. Yang dimana perlu kamu ketahui juga di dalam sebuah Situs magnum slot nomor satu, kini telab keji memberikan sebuah jackpot besar besaran kira anda yang beruntung memenangkan perminaan judi slot tersebut secara skor yang semampai. Tetapi apakah kalau mendapatkan skor nista tidak mendapatkam jackpot?. Hal itu sangat tidak benar, yang dimanan meskipun kamu mendapatkan skor nista atau menengah, dikau masih bisa jadi hadiah dari situs tersebut akibat kelebihan yang diraih. Cuma saja yang yang mana jackpot atau parsel tersebut tidak sejumlah dari pemain yang berhasil menang dengan nilai atau skor tertinggi.

Nah itulah kurang lebih ulasan menarik mengenai kelebihan yang dimiliki oleh sebuah Situs magnum slot . Yang dimana kini pusat banyak masyarakat mempercayainya dan bahkan merekomendasikannya kepada teman ataupun kerabatnya.

Agen Togel Online Apa Yang Terunggul buat Anda

Agen Togel Online Apa Yang Terpilih untuk Anda

Agen Togel Online Apa Yang Terpilih buat Anda! Anda mau memperoleh tiket dalam perjudian togel internasional itu, khan? Kami tidak mempersalahkan Anda, begitupun kami! Kabar baiknya yakni Anda bisa secara mudah lakukan itu tiada harus lakukan perjalanan internasional. Tambahkan kembali paspor Anda ke laci serta dengar.

bandar togel online memberinya Anda alat serta kesederhanaan yang Anda perlukan untuk beli ticket lotre dalam keamanan rumah Anda. Bila Anda udah biasa dengan website itu. Peluang Anda udah melaksanakan kajian buat pilih yang terpilih. Peluangnya yakni studi sudah kembalikan beberapa puluh situs buat diputuskan.

Jadi agen togel yang mana cocok buat Anda? Kemungkinan sukar buat jawab pertanyaan dan Anda mesti kerjakan banyak studi. Macam-macam di permainan data hk yang siap. Pilihan pembayaran, pilihan penarikan uang, feature keamanan serta bonus semuanya kudu dikontrol. Untungnya, kami sudah berusaha memperingan pekerjaan Anda untuk mengenali metode di saat main judi togel online.

Alih-alih membaca beberapa website serta membaca semuanya perbedaan agen togel itu. Anda semestinya perhitungkan untuk ambil kuis LottoExposed. Ini yaitu satu diantara alat sangat simple serta amat efisien buat penentuan agen togel online terutama.

Kuis ini fokus pada beberapa tabiat serta ciri yang dirasa penting oleh orang yang tidak sama. Ini focus di pertanyaan antara lain:

  • Jenis pengeluaran sidney dan permainan apa yang Anda rasakan?
  • Seberapa pentingkah bonus untuk penentuan agen lotere yang pas?
  • Pentingkah pengesahan harga buat Anda?
  • Seberapa pentingkah service konsumen untuk Anda?
  • Metode pembelian ticket online apa yang paling Anda senangi?

Berdasarkan input yang Anda kasih dalam kuis singkat ini, kami dapat menganjurkan agen togel yang miliki pelayanan yang hendak Anda gemari. Sesudah Anda mendapat hasil, Anda juga dikasihkan daftar feature. Ciri ini memberikan dengan cara tepat kenapa pilihan itu merupakan yang cocok untuk Anda.

Apa yang Perlu Anda Kenali dalam Main Togel Online?

Agen Togel Online Terlisensi serta Populer

Kami tahu jika beberapa dari Anda masih waspada saat melakukan pembelian online. Yakinkan, kami cukup kerap alami sentimen mirip. Ini ialah argumen pokok kenapa semua agen togel yang termaksud dalam referensi di-test serta punya rekam jejak. Mereka udah ada bertahun-tahun, mengatur buat bangun rekam jejak mereka dengan focus di service konsumen keamanan atau bintang.

Saat ini, kuis menganjurkan lima dari banyak agen togel online di luar. Kami bekerja giat buat memvalidasi otensitas dan keamanan kemungkinan pembelian ticket itu sebelumnya bikin ketentuan akhir serta memutus apa dapat menganjurkan. Karena kami lagi mengupayakan memberinya Anda bisa lebih banyak peluang untuk diputuskan, daftar agen togel yang disepakati akan miliki potensi tumbuh dalam tempo dekat.

Masih belum sangat percaya? Pengin pelajari sedikit banyak terkait pengalaman pihak lain sebelumnya memutuskan agen togel yang direferensikan kuis? Anda bisa datang komunitas LottoExposed buat share info dengan penggila lotre yang lain serta jawab pertanyaan tambahan. Selamat mempraktekkan serta ingat buat nikmati semuanya kesempatan pembelian ticket yang hadir dengan secara Anda secara bertanggungjawab.

Mungkin hanya itu uraian dari artikel kami berkenaan agen togel online terpilih buat Anda tentukan dalam permainkan games terka angka online. Mudah-mudahan oleh karena ada data ini lebih simpel untuk Anda meraih kemenangan permainan togel online. Selamat bermain serta mudah-mudahan sukses!

The Idiot’s Manual to Ssh Account

The Idiot’s Manual to Ssh Account

SSH Account has been made, 5. You’re now prepared to connect to your SSH account working with the private key. You’re now prepared to connect to your SSH account utilizing the keys. The expression non-user account may be employed for talking about all user accounts that are not standard user accounts.

The Bizarre Secret of Ssh Account

If you are behind your organization’s firewall and you’re using proxy, you should configure the Proxy settings. Approaches for you, If you’ve got your own business, you may need to set your own server in order for your employees and people who work in your company can be linked someone to another in better way. No matter what variety of websites your organization needs hosted, a digital private server is a wonderful and flexible alternative. Many tiny companies with different demands and workloads Ssh Account realize that cloud hosting is a powerful option that may fulfill their demands. Above, whoever owns the house directory was set to root allowing the chroot jail to get the job done.
Want to LEARN About Ssh Account?

The task necessary to begin an ssh server is reliant on the distribution of Linux which you’re using. When it is useful to have the ability to log in to a remote system using passwords, it is a much greater idea to determine key-based authentication. SSH keys needs to be produced on the computer you wish to sign in from.
After you have on the server, you will most likely be requested to confirm your identity by supplying a password. With the capability to customize your VPS on every level, you can use produce a server that will assist your business and its own domains to stay to boost their success. On the flip side, a dedicated server is a physical server that you may purchase or rent for the demands of your company. A cloud server is supposed to be legitimate when it’s conveyed through server virtualization. You don’t need to download a certain client. Also your connection is going to be encrypted. A tunneled connection is created once a server has the capacity to authenticate the connecting client.

You can find two solutions to configure ssh account

Moreover, SSH Account provides a massive suite of secure tunneling capabilities, several authentication strategies, and advanced configuration alternatives. OpenSSH is incorporated into many professional goods, but hardly any of people businesses assist OpenSSH with funding. SSH is a way to login remotely via one computer to some other computer securely. SSH is a means to remote login via one computer to a different computer securely. SSH contains the capability to deliver a safe, encrypted link between your customer and the server through this encrypted tunnel.

When you’ve create your hardware configurations, it’s period to begin preparing the rest of your digital machine. Inside the aforementioned example, the two configuration things are only used while the user a part of the sftponly user group. Such users can ordinarily be utilized to log in making use of a password and can be used for running programs using the pc. Type your password when you’re prompted for doing that. Often, disabling Password authentication might be asked to be disabled. The encryption employed by SSH provides confidentiality and integrity of information over an insecure network like the net.

Mengetahui Jalan Belajar Trading Binomo Bagi Pemula

Mengetahui Jalan Belajar Trading Binomo Bagi Pemula

Masih banyak orang-orang yang belum mengerti cara belajar trading Binomo kira pemula. Padahal orang2 tersebut tertarik pada dunia trading. Mengarifi dan paham bagaimana cara menggunakannya sangatlah menguntungkan.

Jika sudah pacak, bukan tidak mungkin Anda akan tetap mendapatkan keuntungan ketika melakukan trading . Beserta demikian, uang yang akan dapatkan sebagai semakin besar cuma dengan bermain Binomo.

Cara Belajar Trading Binomo Untuk Pemula dengan Mudah

Bagi tertarik dengan dunia trading menggunakan Binomo, oleh sebab itu Anda harus mencari ilmu terlebih dahulu. Tumpuan mempelajari trading ini adalah supaya Anda tidak kecemasan mengenai bagaimana mempergunakan Binomo, bagaimana menghasilkan akun dan taktik lainnya.

Adapun hal-hal yang harus dilakukan ketika Anda merupakan seorang pemula antara lain adalah:

  1. Mengunduh Aplikasi Binomo Terlebih Dulu

Hal pertama yang harus Kamu lakukan jika memutuskan untuk mencoba trading menggunakan Binomo adalah mengunduh aplikasinya. Anda bisa mengunduh aplikasi Binomo melalui Play Store ataupun Google Play . Ukuran aplikasi ini pun tidak terlalu besar sehingga reaksi pengunduhan tak akan berlangsung lama.

  1. Membuat Account Binomo

Sesudah aplikasi Binomo diunduh dan terinstall pada ponsel Anda, sepak-terjang selanjutnya adalah memproduksi akun. Proses pabrikasi akun ini sangatlah mudah. Anda hanya perlu memasukkan email dan juga perintah sandi untuk account Binomo. Pastikan Dikau mengingat kata rahasia yang digunakan, sebab isyarat tersebutlah yang akan digunakan untuk proses login ke akun Binomo.

  1. Memverifikasi Email

Setelah proses penggarapan akun selesai, Anda akan diminta untuk memverifikasi akun email yang digunakan untuk membuat akun Binomo. Proses verifikasi itu merupakan tahapan belakang yang harus dilakukan untuk membuat akun. Setelah proses tes ini dilakukan, maka akun Binomo telah dapat digunakan.

  1. Menguji Akun Demo Terlebih Dahulu

Asalkan Anda seorang perintis, sebaiknya untuk berbuat latihan terlebih lewat menggunakan akun demo. Binomo telah menyiapkan akun demo kira penggunanya untuk berlatih ataupun memperkuat skill dalam trading .

Pada dalam akun demo ini, Anda sudah dibekali dengan sisa yang bisa dimanfaatkan untuk latihan. Tapi saldo tersebut tidak bisa ditarik. Kamu hanya bisa menggunakannya untuk keperluan pendidikan saja.

  1. Mencoba Account Real

Setelah Anda merasa telah mahir dalam trading menggunakan Binomo, maka mulailah menguji untuk menggunakan account real. Untuk percobaan pertama, terdapat baiknya Anda memakai deposit dalam total kecil terlebih lewat. Hal ini dilakukan agar Anda tidak kehilangan banyak duit apabila mengalami kekalahan dalam trading .

Apa sebab Harus Binomo

Platform trading ini sudah biasa sangat terkenal pada penjuru dunia. Sudah biasa banyak sekali pengguna binomo dari segala dunia. Platform ini juga luar biasa ramah bagi pembimbing yang ingin menguji peruntungan di dalam dunia trading . Memilikinya akun demo & saldo yang bisa digunakan untuk latihan sangatlah membantu untuk pemula.

Pemula bisa menyimak dan membiasakan muncul terlebih dahulu tentang trading . Jika telah terbiasa dan ulung, barulah pemula tersebut bisa mencoba trading sesungguhnya secara menggunakan akun real .

Kecuali itu, Binomo juga memiliki sangat banyak fitur-fitur yang digunakan untuk menganalisa trading . Taktik ini tentu saja luar biasa membantu para penggunanya agar berhasil dalam trading oleh karena itu bisa memperoleh keuntungan yang diinginkan.

Jadi kira Anda yang sebal dengan Binomo, segeralah unduh dan buatlah akun. Tenang sekadar, jika merasa belum ahli, Anda dapat mencari cara mencari ilmu trading Binomo bagi pemula yang banyak sekali tersebar di internet.

Teknik Belajar Trading Binomo Pemula, Pastilah Aman Dan Cuan

Belajar trading Binomo pemula adalah usaha banyak trader untuk hasilkan keuntungan. Artikel ini dapat mengkaji perihal beberapa tips mulai trading Binomo, biar terlepas dari rugi. Tapi sebelumnya mengupas hal itu, alangkah lebih baik Kamu mengerti benar terkait apa yang dimaksud Binomo.

Binomo yakni basis trading online yang dapat dimainkan siapa-siapa saja, maksudnya adalah untuk mendatangkan uang lewat cara online. Di Binomo siap 20 lebih alat grafis yang mempermudah trader untuk mengkaji diagram perdagangan. Supaya mendapati keuntungan, Kamu mesti mengusai gunakan alat/instrument yang ada. Oleh karena itu Kamu harus rajin belajar dan latihan untuk memperasah kapabilitas trading.

Tidak butuh risau kalau Kamu belum mengenali dunia trading sekali-kali, berikut tehnik belajar jadi trader professional:

Tips Belajar Trading Binomo Pemula, Pastinya Cuan!

Hal yang amat fundamental buat mulai trading Binomo yakni bikin account. Buat mempunyai account, Kamu cuman perlu mendaftarkan gunakan e mail aktif atau account medsos. Kemudian, tentukan mata uang rupiah dan cheklist pertanda perjanjian konsumen. Kemudian Binomo akan kirim pesan ke e-mail, serta Kamu penting mengeklik link yang ada buat mengaktifkan account. Kalau account telah teraktivasi, karena itu Kamu udah sah punyai account Binomo.

Tips ke-2 supaya dapat mendatangkan cuan dari Binomo adalah menggunakan account demonstrasi untuk latihan. Waktu telah punyai account, Binomo siapkan account demonstrasi yang dilengkapi dana virtual 1000 dollar AS. Dengan layanan itu Kamu dapat latihan trading dengan coba pelbagai tanda riset harga yang ada. Dengan latihan memanfaatkan account demonstrasi, Kamu dapat bebas dari kemungkinan rugi.

Tips ke-3 buat trader pemula adalah pelajari banyak kiat dan menunjuk satu yang amat pas. Kunci untuk mendapat cuan dengan bermain trading ialah taktik. Di Binomo ada beberapa kiat yang dapat dipakai buat mempelajari serta membaca gerakan harga. Untuk yang baru saja memulai, Kamu dapat coba pelbagai strategy itu pada account demonstrasi. Bila sudah mendapatkan 1 yang amat tepat, Kamu dapat menempatkannya saat gunakan account real. Dengan langkah ini, Kamu dapat punya potensi mendapat cuan serta lolos dari rugi.

Tips ke-4 buat trader pemula biar cepat memperoleh cuan adalah gunakan program Binomo. Bermain trading memanfaatkan basis Binomo tak perlu susah-susah bawa notebook/pc, karena Binomo telah siapkan vs mobile/program. Baik pemakai Android ataupun iOS dapat mengambil terapan itu.

Itulah beberapa tehnik buat trader pemula yang mau cepat mendapati keuntungan serta bebas dari rugi. Kunci main trading biar cuan adalah gak boleh greedy serta emosional. Lantaran, peluang untung serta rugi di dunia trading itu biasa, jadi Kamu mesti pintar mengontrol moral biar tak stress.

Trading Aman Melalui Binomo

Dunia trading betul-betul berefek, tetapi tidak begitu dengan basis trading Binomo. Selamanya tidak gunakan lebih pada 10% modal dan Kamu cerdas management trading, nyata Kamu bisa mengantongi keuntungan. Kalau dari 10% itu Kamu sukses memperoleh cuan, Kamu dapat perlahan-lahan menambah setorannya, biar keuntungan yang di bisa lebih banyak.

Belajar trading Binomo pemula sangat penting, karena skill trading mustahil diperoleh instant. Buat dapat memperoleh keuntungan, Kamu mesti banyak latihan serta belajar membaca fluktuasi pasar, supaya memutuskan secara pas. Manalagi trick trading Binomo pula lumayan banyak, Kamu mesti menunjuk satu yang amat tepat serta presisi untuk menciptakan keuntungan.

Memperoleh Agen Slot Games Online

Langkah Memperoleh Agen slot Games Online Tanpa Repot! Permainan pemroduksi uang jadi opsi untuk tiap orang untuk memperoleh beragam jenis keuntungan tanpa pakai repot sama sekalipun. Jadi hal yang lumrah bila kamu ingin menghasilkan banyak uang. Permainan pemroduksi uang jadi cara simpel yang bisa dimainkan secara online hingga keuntungan yang hendak didapat lebih besar.

Membuat account permainan online ialah cara yang digunakan oleh seluruh orang, keuntungan dari permainan memiliki nilai plus karena sanggup dimainkan tanpa perlu keluar rumah sama sekalipun. Sebelumnya, yakinkan semua permainan yang ada bisa menguntungkan dengan jumlah yang besar dengan raih kemenangannya atas permainan.

Saat sebelum semuanya, lebih penting untuk pahami secara baik cara gampang yang bisa digunakan untuk raih keamanan dari agen situs slot online games online yang akurat. Tidak jadi hal yang ribet untuk mendapati agen yang aman. Penelusuran bisa dilaksanakan dengan beragam jenis langkah. Agen yang ada dalam internet memang berlainan.

Ada banyak agen permainan dalam internet yang bisa dimainkan oleh seluruh orang. Tetapi, tidak seluruhnya agen bisa dipercaya demikian saja, beberapa agen malah raih keuntungan tertentu dari beberapa pemain dengan membuat penawaran yang nyaris sama seperti seperti penipuan. Kamu bisa lakukan penelusuran dengan simpel juga.

Dapatkan Agen Slot Games Online

Mencari referensi agen slot games online
Cari agen bisa dilaksanakan dengan lakukan penelusuran pada referensi. Banyak situs yang memberinya referensi untuk beragam jenis agen yang hendak digunakan. Situs ini umumnya sebagai situs yang memberinya penawaran simpel. Satu diantaranya dengan membuat beragam jenis agen berdasar posisi terpopuler menurut orang.

Rangking di internet
Hal yang lain dibutuhkan ialah lakukan penelusuran untuk agen berdasar rangking yang berada di dalam kolom internet. Lakukan penelusuran untuk rangking bisa dilaksanakan dengan masukkan keyword berkaitan agen permainan yang kamu gunakan. Masukan keyword dalam kolom penelusuran.

Situs Slot Online Terpercaya

Lalu, hal yang bisa kamu kerjakan untuk penelusuran agen slot games online ialah menyaksikan tempat agen itu ada. Bila agen yang kamu harapkan tidak ada dalam kolom terbaik. Karena itu, hal yang penting dilaksanakan ialah menyaksikan nama agen yang lain ada dalam sepuluh rangking terbaik. Agen dalam posisi ini bisa dipercaya karena sanggup melalui beragam jenis test penyeleksian yang ada dan penawaran terbaik dalam waktu lama juga.

Manfaatkan pembahasan jadi hal terbaik yang kerap dilaksanakan oleh beberapa orang. Umumnya, beberapa orang lakukan penelusuran ketika akan berbelanja dengan cari pembahasan produk. Dalam penelusuran agen permainan sama, saat lakukan penelusuran untuk agen. Karena itu, coba untuk membaca pembahasan yang diberi oleh tiap orang. Tentukan agen permainan yang aman dari pembahasan positif yang diberi oleh beberapa orang.

Bertanya rekan
Menanyakan ke rekan atau lakukan penelusuran agen slot games online dengan simpel dari jaringan yang kamu punyai ialah hal gampang. Ada beberapa orang yang tergabung di dalam permainan slot.

Permainan bisa menguntungkan hingga seluruh orang membuat account permainan. Yakinkan untuk minta code referal dan mendaftarkan hingga ke-2 faksi memperoleh keuntungan yang serupa besar.

Ini jadi cara-cara simpel yang bisa digunakan untuk mendapati agen permainan slot gacor games online yang aman. Peroleh beragam jenis keuntungan dengan mendaftarkan di pada agen yang akurat.

Merasai Keuntungan Besar Dari Sebuah Situs Slot Online Dapat dipercaya

Mencari suatu keuntung yang di mana didambakan dari suatu perjudian slot memanglah cukup sukar. Akan tetapi perihal itu begitu simpel anda peroleh bila sungguh-sungguh serius dalam memainkan. Yang di mana Nyata anda pahami kalau begitu banyak keuntungan yang dapat diterima satu orang di saat main agen judi slot deposit pulsa lewat cara online itu. Serta perlu anda kenali pula jika keuntungan yang dikasihkan suatu situs slot online yang menadahi perjudian slot itu tidak cuma berikan keuntungan materi atau seperti uang saja.

Dimana hal-hal atau keuntungan lainnya yang bisa dikasihkan suatu perjudian slot itu. Dan artikel kesempatan ini dapat kupas habis apa sich keuntungan baik berwujud materi maupin non materi itu yang dapat seorang temukan ketika bermain judi slot. Yang di mana secara memanglah dari kurun dulu perjudian slot bisa dan dapat memberinya sebuah keuntungan yang banyak untuk tiap-tiap personal yang memainkan. Manalagi apabila anda main judi slot itu dalam suatu situs dapat dipercaya serta amat recomended. Yang di mana anda akan bebas dari yang namanua suatu penipuan dari agen blog permainan judl slot lewat cara online itu.

Nah Berikut Di bawah Ini Beberapa Keuntungan Besar Masuk Dengan Situs Slot Online

Menjadi seseoran yang kaya raya

Para penggemar permainan tentang judi tentu maksud penting yang ada di pikiran yakni jadi satu orang yang kaya raya khan?. Butuh anda pahami kalau dengan bermaian slot dalam sesuatu situs slot online hasrat atau maksud pokok yang ada di benak anda akan terwujud secara gampang. Ditambah lagi bila anda amat pandai pada dunia judi seperi slot itu. Keuntungan itu penting anda kenali yaitu betul tersedianya. Yang di mana sebuah situs perjudian slot dapat memberi sebuah keuntungan yang besar serta buat anda seorang yang kaya raya.

Dengan demikian juga anda bisa beli suatu yang di mana sampai kini idam idamkan. Yang di mana segalanya yang dulu saat sebelum main judi slot amat sukar Diwujudkan, karenanya tak bisa disanggah kalau waktu anda main slot resmi di satu situs paling dipercaya hal semacam itu sangat gampang digapai. Yang di mana anda pahami kalau keuntungan mendatangkan uang pada jumlah yang banyak suatu situs atau bermainnya bisa berikan itu seluruhnya dengan gampang. Di mana apabila anda bisa atau bisa bermainan dan memenangi permainan itu dengan score yang tertinggi.

Mendapatkan kebahagiaan atau kesenangan buat diri sendiri

Perlu anda pahami kalau suatu situs slot online yang menampung pemain judi slot itu bisa memberi kebahagiaan atau kesenangan untuk diri pribadi. Kenapa cuma diri kita sendiri? Hal demikian kemungkinan lebih pasnya kesenangan untuk tiap pribadi yang memainkan. Membuat kebahagiaan untuk diri pribadi bisa dijelaskan cukup susah. Oleh sebab itu dengan bermsin judi slot yang di mana metode permainannya benar-benar asyik serta membikin heboh bikin hati tiap-tiap pemain jadi suka. Nach perihal itu sebuah wujud kebahagiaan buat diri kita sendiri yang di mana anda yang membikinnya. Bukanlah orang yang lain bikin anda dalam suatu permainan jadi puas lalu ketawa.

Nah di atas tersebut sejumlah wujud keuntungan yang didapat dari suatu permainan di situs slot online di mana sangat banyak yang dapat anda peroleh. Juga keuntungan yang banyak yang anda perlukan serta idam idamkan sepanjang main tentu akan diwujudkan dengan gampang, kalau sungguh-sungguh serius melaksanakannya.

Strategi Tepat Menang Slot Online Pragmatic Play Yang Hebat

Salah satu tipe permainan slot online namanya pragmatic play ini bukanlah cuma hanya itu. Pragmatic play ini pastilah tak kalah menawan dengan beberapa perjudian online lainnya. Bahkan juga kamu dapat juga rasakan sendiri bagaimana rasanya sehabis bermain permainan online Pragmatic Play ini. Bercakap perihal judi slot online, tentunya kamu akan mengetahui kalaupun permainan pragmatic ini merupakan permainan yang memiliki model serta ragam gamplay.

Trik Tepat Menang agen slot online

Untuk kamu yang pengin mainkan perjudian online pragmatic play, kamu tidak berasa jenuh karena kamu tidak sekedar mainkan satu permainan saja tetapi pula pelbagai ragam perjudian pragmatic play. Tetapi saat sebelum main situs pragmatic play ada waktunya kamu harus mengenal apa trick tepat untuk memenangi perjudian online ini karena oleh ketahui kiat memainkan kamu pastilah dapat bermain permainan pragmatic play dengan begitu gampang.

Gunakan Penyusunan Turbo Spin Buat Main

Trik pertama-kali yang dapat kamu melakukan untuk meraih kemenangan permainan slot pragmatic play ini dengan memakai penataan turbo spin. Turbo spin ini kedepan bakal menolong kamu supaya dapat menjadi pemenang permainan dalam waktu cepat. Sebab tiap-tiap permainan slot online pragmatic play tentu miliki setting turbo spin.

Biasanya kamu dapat mendapati permainan pragmatic play yang bersifat tombol dengan tulisan “turbo spin”. Kalaupun kamu mau memenangi bermainnya, karenanya paling penting buat kamu mengontrol turbo spin ini buat kamu pakai dalam memercepat perjudian online itu.

Lakukan Betting Waktu Main Slot Online Pragmatic

Kalau cara yang pertama kamu dianjurkan untuk memanfaatkan turbo spin, karenanya tidak serupa dengan kiat ke-2 untum menjadi pemenang judi online slot pragmatic yakni dengan kerjakan betting. Betting ini merupakan istilah dari taruhan di permainan slot online, maka dari itu bila kamu ingin bermain, karena itu betting lebih penting buat kamu ketahui serta melakukan secara baik.

Dalam kerjakan kiat betting, banyak pemain memang tidaklah ada keterpaksaan buat tentukan nominal maka dari itu kamu dapat bebas saat kerjakan betting dengan nominal yang rendah atau tinggi. Dengan kiat ini kamu langsung bisa permainkan gamenya maka dari itu kamu dapat buat merasai langsung bagaimanakah cara bermain permainan pragmatic play ini.

Gunakan Seluruhnya Chip Yang Kamu Punya

Trik buat dapat meraih kemenangan slot pragmatic play yang ke-3 ini yaitu lewat langkah gunakan seluruh chip yang ada. Di permainan pragmatic play kamu dapat kerjakan taruhan memakai chip, bukan sekedar gunakan bet saja. Serta rata-rata chip ini dapat kamu peroleh dari beberapa perjudian pragmatic berbentuk kepingan kecil di mana kamu dapat memperoleh sejumlah wujud kepingan.

Kamu pula bebas untuk gunakan seluruhnya chip yang kamu mempunyai pada permainan itu atau cuma memanfaatkan beberapa chip saja sesuai sama keinginan kamu. Tetapi kalaupun kamu mau meraih kemenangan bermainnya, jadi kamu diminta buat memanfaatkan seluruhnya chip. Karenanya memakai seluruhnya chip di permainan, karenanya kamu dapat langsung mendapati bonus pada jumlah yang besar.

Itulah sejumlah strategi menang permainan slot online pragmatic play. Kiat tepat paling akhir yakni dengan memakai saldo account sebanyaknya. Dengan gunakan saldo permainan sebanyak-banyaknya, jadi kemungkinan kecil kamu akan ulangi permainan. Maka dari itu kiat ini dapat amat efisien buat kamu pakai sepanjang mainkan perjudian online slot pragmatic play.

Kenal Pragmatic Play Slot Online Serta Keuntungannya

Sekarang ini sangat banyak judi online yang menebar di Indonesia. Siapakah yang belum mengetahui terkait judi online gacor slot, pastilah segalanya sudah akrab dengan satu diantaranya metode cari mata pencarian yang berikut. Pada permainan ini, sangat banyak macam permainan yang memikat serta yang pasti memberikan keuntungan apabila kamu serius buat memainkan.

Seiring dengan berubahnya tehnologi yang kian maju, banyak pula perusahaan games yang hebat berkompetisi buat dapat menyediakan pelbagai perjudian online terunggul bahkan juga dari mereka ada yang menyajikan permainan bertemakan gelaran taruhan dengan berhadiah uang rupiah sebenarnya.

Dengan dibantu jaringan dan jatah internet yang lancar, gadget kamu tentunya langsung bisa daftarkan diri dan memasangkan taruhan di diantara satu dari sejumlah permainan yang berada di situs pragmatic. Kamu dapat menjadi pemenang hadiahnya sewaktu-waktu tiada batasan waktu maupun umur, lantaran siapa-siapa saja dapat memainkan.

Nah, buat kamu yang serupa sekali belum mengetahui atau memang belum pernah dengar terkait web judi pragmatic play, di bawah ini ialah kajian perihal pengenalan situs serta keuntungan yang dapat kamu temukan kalau kamu dapat meraih kemenangan peemainan di web itu.

Mengenal Slot Pragmatic Play

Hal ini yang bikin sangat banyak pemain yang ingin tahu untuk dapat lihai permainkan serta meraih kemenangan situs slot lengkap. Pragmatic slot ini salah satu permainan slot online yang paling beri keuntungan. Kamu juga dapat merasakan keuntungan sampai seribu % dari modal awalan yang kamu pakai buat taruhan.

Seperti yang ditemui, kamu dapat mendapati hadiah gapai 10 kali lipat makin besar dari modal yang kamu mengeluarkan diawalnya . Maka tidaklah aneh kalau perjudian online yang satu berikut disebut selaku mesin pembuat uang oleh beberapa pemainnya.

Bagi banyak pemain baru dari web judi online ini, kemungkinan banyak pada mereka yang masih tidak tahu dengan situs judi slot lengkap ini. Mereka cuman perlu menyadari serta latihan biar jadi pemain yang pintar. Berlainan dengan bettor yang udah mempunyai pengalaman, tentu saja mereka bisa menyadari dan dekat sama bandar taruhan pragmatic play untuk dapat jadi pemenang permainan itu..

Keuntungan Jadi Bettor Judi Online Pragmatic

Jika kamu cuma miliki modal 50 ribu saja, kamu bisa mendapati hadiah hibgga berpuluh-puluh juta. Grafis dan latar belakang dari permainan-permainan judi slot online ini pula dilihat antik dan elok, dan service yang nyaman jadikan permainan slot online yang berikut jadi teratas di hati banyak bettor.

Banyak sekali keuntungan dapat kamu temukan cukup dengan mainkan salah satunya perjudian online yang berada pada situs slot online terpercaya, lantaran pragmatic play ini yaitu salah satunya situs pemasok slot online yang sah serta tersertifikat yang mempunyai beberapa permainan menarik dan amat bermacam-macam.

Tidak cuma memberi keuntungan uang saja, permainan pragmatic online ini tenyata juga ringan buat dapat kamu permainkan dan judi online ini tak memandang perlu pemainnya untuk dapat miliki ketrampilan khusus maka dari itu siapa-siapa saja dapat memainkan dengan bebas. Begitu juga dengan hadiahnya, seluruhnya hadiah dapat kamu menangi kalau kamu bernar-benar serius bermain pada website itu.

Nah, tersebut banyak hal yang kemungkinan belum kamu pahami mengenai situs pragmatic slot online. Dengan adanya ini kamu dapat mengenali keuntungan dan terkait situa pragmatic menjadi service judi online yang bisa dipercaya.

situs judi slot

Keunggulan Main di Situs Slot Online Terpercaya buat Pemula. Bertaruh dalam perjudian buat sejumlah pemainnya termaksud soal yang membahagiakan. Seringkali ada dari mereka yang selalu taruhan tiap harinya dalam waktu yang lama. Model judi dimainkan juga cukup banyak serta bisa disamakan dengan impian tiap-tiap pemainnya. Tiap-tiap permainan itu juga menjajakan kesan main berbeda tergantung di tingkat kesukaran dari type itu.

Salah satu permainan yang kerap jadikan alternatif lantaran simpel metode memainkan ialah mesin slot. Tidak cuma simpel, beberapa orang miliki asumsi jika memainkan cuma memerlukan peruntungan pemainnya saja. Walau sebenarnya untuk dapat mengantongi sejumlah keuntungan, kamu pula perlu mengendalikan kiat tepat. Tapi, dibanding itu kamu harus tergabung pada web paling dipercaya lantaran keutamaannya. Seringkali kelebihan itu cuma dipunyai oleh situs online dapat dipercaya saja.

Serba Serbi Perihal Situs Slot Online Terpercaya

Bagi kamu masih pemula di dunia permainan judi, barangkali belum ketahui betul dengan apa yang dimaksud situs main slot secara online. Website untuk dapat taruhan slot dengan aman serta nyaman ini disajikan oleh suatu broker judi. Agen itu memberinya peluang supaya semuanya pemain dapat merasai bermain mesin slot. Meskipun mereka tidak dapat memainkan dengan cara langsung di casino, akan tetapi selalu merasai kehebohan main mesin slot dari handphone.

Dengan gunakan situs sama ini, kamu dapat rasakan kehebohan dari objek yang ada. Tapi, kamu mesti lebih berwaspada ketika mau jatuhkan pilohan di satu situs sebab terdapat banyak pelaku nakal. Mereka ini rata-rata mempunyai maksud buat menipu banyak anggota yang tergabung dan mendapatkan keuntungan dari pemain sebanyaknya. Oleh lantaran itu, kamu pula butuh data tentang tanda-tanda situs dalam jaringan paling dipercaya supaya memperoleh sejumlah keuntungan darinya.

Keunggulan dari Bermain di Situs Slot Terpercaya

Sudah bukan jadi rahasia kembali bila saat ini ada beberapa biro judi yang tersebar. Maka dari itu kamu jadi pemain pemula tidak terasa kepelikan untuk dapat mendapati blog dalam jaringan bisa dipercaya itu. Penting diketahui kalau waktu akan main kamu harus masuk sama web dapat dipercaya supaya memperoleh pelbagai keuntungan dari kelebihan yang dipunyai. Jikalau kamu ingin mengetahui apa keistimewaannya, berikut salah satunya: joker slot

Situs slot online terpercaya memberikan banyak bonus

Keunggulan dari bermain judi di situs dalam jaringan slot demo gratis buat pemain pemula ialah adanya pelbagai bonus. Rata-rata, pemain yang baru kali pertama masuk di satu situs dapat mendapati bonus untuk pertama kali. Bonus itu berwujud bonus new anggota, diberikan cuma sekali waktu masuk dengan suatu web. Akan tetapi, bonus itu bukan sekedar hingga sampai di sana saja lantaran ada banyak bonus lain buat pemainnya..

Tersedia beberapa macam slot menarik

Keunggulan seterusnya yakni tersedianya tipe permainan slot yang lebih banyak. Pastilah perihal itu penting buat pemain pemula biar cari mesin slot buat bermain. Makin banyak ada pilihan pasti bikin kamu lebih lega dalam menyeleksi permainan sesenang hati semisal menimbulkan perhatian.

Kemudahan saat melaksanakan bisnis

Keunggulan satu ini cuma dapat kamu temukan waktu taruhan slot secara dalam jaringan, adalah keringanan dalam berbisnis. Apa lagi sekarang udah terdapat banyak metoda pembayaran negosiasi judi siap dan dapat dipakai dengan gampang. Juga prosesnya juga termasuk simpel dan dijalankan secara cepat. Maka dari itu buat pemain anyar tak perlu takut apabila proses transaksi bisnisnya dapat sukar serta mengkonsumsi banyaknya waktu.

Itu barusan sedikit info perihal kelebihan dari main dalam suatu situs slot online paling dipercaya untuk beberapa pemain pemula.

First pages that grab: Bark at the Moon by Great First Pages Made Even Better third-place winner, David Fuller

100819 David Fuller 0001
Photo: Mike Deal/Winnipeg Free Press

Didn’t think I would post twice today, did you? Well, I was up late, preparing some handouts for my querying class this Saturday afternoon at the Words & Music conference in New Orleans. Do consider snatching up your latest query draft and meeting me there; the per-class rate is exceptionally reasonable.

Back to long-delayed business. Back in September, if you will recall, I devoted an array of posts to the Grand Prize, first place, and second-place winners in the Author! Author! Great First Pages Made Even Better Contest. Since there were so many third-place winners in the YA category and the YA author originally scheduled to provide the feedback to those winners dropped out at the last possible second, I had hoped to rustle up a bona fide YA author to comment instead. A couple of months and a plethora of polite regrets later, and I seem still to be going it alone.

I would have liked to have some YA-attuned eyes on today’s Great First Pages Made Even Better prizewinner, David Jéan Fuller. His entry, page 1 of a paranormal entitled Bark at the Moon, was entered in the contest’s Category II: Adult Fiction and Memoir. The judges felt, however, that not only was the subject matter better suited to YA fantasy, but the voice was as well.

See if you can tell why. Here’s the brief book description. Extra credit if you spot the formatting gaffe.

Fuller synopsis

Could go either way on the subject matter, right? The dashes, however, cannot: in a synopsis, as in a manuscript, dashes should be doubled, with a space on either end (my blog program won’t permit me to show you a doubled dash in action, but here’s how to do it: wordspacedashdashspace). What we see here is an emdash, the super-long version the autoformat function in Word likes to use as a substitute for the doubled dash. Don’t let it — change it back.

But I digress from the book category issue. From the book description, this could be a book about 20-somethings — or 200-somethings, given the paranormal element — but remember, Millicent the agency screener tends to read a synopsis after a query (if it’s in a query packet) or the opening pages (if it’s in a submission packet). In a submission especially, the voice on page 1 is probably going to be the determining factor in whether she says, “Oh, this is a good voice and story for the specified book category — which is fortunate, because my boss, the agent, insists that I reject even very good submissions in categories she does not represent,” and “Oh, that’s too bad: this voice is clearly YA, and my boss represents adult fiction. Next!”

So, perversely, the strength of David’s voice here — and it is quite a strong, believable teenage voice — might actually end up being its rejection trigger. See for yourself — and as usual, if you’re having trouble reading the text, try holding down the COMMAND key and pressing + to increase the image size.

Fuller page 1

Did you form an opinion, or did the formatting problems distract you? Here it is again, correctly formatted; see if you can spot all of the revisions.

Fuller revised

Let’s start at the top, literally. In the original version, the slug line — the author/title/page # bit at the top of the page — appears at the bottom of the header, 1″ down, rather than in the middle of the header, .5″ from the top. The first title should be on the top line of the page, and there should have been two spaces after the colon.

Did you notice that I was able to get an extra line onto the bottom of the page, too? That’s because in my version, I turned off the Widow/Orphan control; if it is on (the default in most word processing programs), the bottom margin is not the same on every page? Why? Well, this function prevents a paragraph’s breaking so only its first line gets left behind on the previous page (the widow) or its last line gets stranded all by itself on the next page (the orphan). In a manuscript, however, you should allow those widows and orphans to fend for themselves; a submission isn’t a PowerPoint presentation, after all.

There was another spacing problem, but someone would probably have to have read manuscripts professionally for a while to have caught it in hard copy: some periods have a single space after them; some have two. A submitter may pick either format, based upon the stated preferences of the agents to whom one is submitting — although purists would prefer two spaces, they are less likely to be vocal about their desires than the fans of the newfangled one-space-only convention — but once that choice is made, the manuscript must be absolutely consistent in implementing it.

Speaking of consistency, while the second song title is rendered correctly, in italics, the first is not: it’s in quotes. Actually, if all of the song titles were in quotes, that probably would not be a deal-breaker for Millicent; she would just make a note for later on, after her boss signs this writer, to remind him to change the song titles to italics.

While these consistency issues might seem like very small things, hardly worth bothering about, to a professional reader’s eye, a couple of oversights appearing on the opening page of a manuscript says something more than the writer’s simply changing his mind about presentation. It says that the writer is not proofreading his work very carefully, which means in turn that he might be a more time-consuming client than someone who does.

Hey, nobody ever said that getting a first page past Millicent was easy.

Do I spot some raised hands out there? “But Anne,” magnifying glass-wielding Millicents-in-training everywhere point out, there’s a Canadian spelling in line 7. While we’re talking about consistency, shouldn’t we be discussing the imperative to change metres to meters — or even changing them to good old American yards?”

Well spotted, nitpickers of tomorrow, but actually, I would leave the spelling as is, provided that David is planning to submit this manuscript only north of the border. When in Rome, do as the Romans do. More to the point, when in Winnipeg, write as the Winnipegians write. It lends a certain air of verisimilitude to the page.

Does that mean that no NYC-based Millicent will sigh over the spelling? Oh, she probably will. It’s just a risk that every non-U.S.-based writer querying and submitting to U.S. agencies has to weigh for herself.

Technicalities aside, what do you think? YA or adult paranormal?

To my eye — and the judges’ — the language alone would lead us to steer this toward YA. Perversely, for the older teen market, limited profanity is fairly routine. Especially as it is used here, where it’s apparently for its own sake, rather than…how to put this delicately…describing an act. That’s far more often a function of teenage speech than of adult narrative.

Also, the tone here is most definitely teenagery — quite authentically so — as is the subject matter. Since it’s hard to picture an adult protagonist caring, at least deeply, about what the protagonist finds engrossing on this page 1, Millicent’s automatic assumption would tend to be that the presumed reader is a teen, too. Although naturally, there is adult fiction where the protagonist starts out as a teenager and moves into adulthood throughout the course of the book, generally speaking, the voice and perspective is geared toward an adult audience.

There’s are a couple of other reasons that this first page just cries out YA, though — and not just because, rather charmingly, the narrator simply assumes that any conceivable reader will be familiar enough with the album he cites that he describes neither the song nor the band; the reader is simply supposed to see the song’s name and instantly picture the album cover.

I see three marketing problems with that. First, ask your parents what albums were, children. Second, if David decides to market this as YA, younger readers won’t catch the reference — and neither will Millicent, who is usually under 26. (Heck, I’m roughly the right age to have known the songs, and I had to look them up.)

Third, if he pitches the book as adult fiction — as, from the category of his entry, I believe he intends — readers old enough to catch the reference may become impatient with the teenage narrator. I tremble to mention it, but they may have teenage children. In any case, 40-somethings do not typically make up the target market for paranormals.

Have you figured out yet what the other YA giveaways might be? No? Okay, let’s take a peek at how Millicent might respond to this page.

David Fuller's edit

Did you catch them this time? First, the occasional slips into the second person, either addressing the reader directly or using it in the colloquial sense, as a substitute for one, as in everyone knows everyone else and riding your bike into the bush is the only was to get out. That’s far more typical of YA narration than narratives aimed at adults — in most adult fiction categories, that your would be considered breaking the fourth wall, as theatre types day: it shatters the illusion that the reader is not, well, reading about this, but actually there.

The other narrative structure here much more common in YA than adult fiction is the frequent use of the passive voice: It was June; there was tall grass. In adult fiction, the passive voice is actively eschewed; many a literary fiction-screening Millicent is trained to regard it as inherently weak writing, more conducive to telling, not showing. The norms of YA, however, permit the occasional lapse into the passive voice, to echo more accurately teenage speech.

There’s one other misstep here that dogs both YA and adult fiction submissions. Again, it’s a subtle point, so I’m going to focus a giant magnifying glass on it myself:

“What?” I said.


See the logic problem? Technically, of course, said could be applied to anything spoken out loud, but practically any editor would change the sentence above without a second thought to this:

“What?” I asked.


Kudos, though, David, on an extremely believable teenage narrative voice — there are few things that annoy YA-reading Millicents more than a young person’s voice that does not sound legitimately young. (You’d be amazed at how many YA narrators come across as 42 — and a preachy 42 at that.) Congratulations, too, on a great author photo for a paranormal; I wouldn’t want to meet those blazing eyes in a dark alley, even under a full moon.

Perhaps especially under a full moon.

Just in case I’ve been too subtle here, were the I — or the judges — to sneak up behind David as he was preparing his query list, I might well murmur in his ear, “Add a few YA agents — and pitch it to them as YA. Oh, and while you’re at it, consider at least a handful of agents who represent both YA and adult authors, to give yourself a shot at the broadest possible market.”

And while I was murmuring, I would tell him — and all of you — to keep up the good work!

Pet peeves on parade, part XII: give that horn a rest, Bozo. Or at least save it for the moment when it will have the most effect.

Every spring, I like to go on a media fast for a few days, just to reset my perspective: I eschew newspapers, television, radio, and yes, even my own blog. Instead of these shiny, frenetic distractions, I walk outside, breathe the fresh air, and bask in light that isn’t reflected from a screen. Then, refreshed, I can return to my work.

Normally, I wait until Seattle is warm enough for me to take those aforementioned walks without being bundled up to my nose in sweaters, jackets, and mufflers. This year, however, the muses were kind enough to provide me with tap on the shoulder and a murmured, “It’s time to go, sweetie.”

Actually, if I’m honest about it, their hint was more of a gigantic shove and a bellow of “Get a move on, doll!” that would have made the late and loud Ethel Merman wheel around in alarm, exclaiming, “What the heck was that?” But omen-watchers can’t be choosers, so out the door I went.

What happened, you ask? Well, at the end of last week, I logged into Facebook (where I have recently erected a fanpage, incidentally) to check in with some friends in Tokyo, as one does when natural and manmade disasters occur simultaneously. When I tried to post a comment, a brusque message informed me that the system had experienced a technical error. The dialogue box invited me to click on an ostensibly helpful link entitled Try Again.

That seemed like sensible advice: I clicked it once. The system then proceeded to post my comment 94 times, of its own accord. And frankly, what I’d had to say would have been interesting to even the most avid reader three or four times, at most.

But in the best tradition of false suspense, Facebook did not show me those 94 comments. Instead, it simply sent me back to my own homepage, as though nothing out of the ordinary had happened. So how did I find out about the infamous 94 at all? Because when I tried commenting on another friend’s page, up popped a genuinely nasty message saying that I was blocked from posting for some indefinite period of time, ranging (it said) anywhere from a few hours to a few days, because of my ongoing patter of (unnamed) malicious behavior annoying or abusive to other users.

What that behavior was, I was left to guess; the message merely referred me to a FAQ page. In the manner of badly-designed FAQ pages everywhere, it simply repeated verbatim what the message that had sent me there said. Grumbling, I went back to my friend’s page and did something that the harsh rebuke had not advised, but should have: I manually deleted 93 of those messages, one at a time. Because the system isn’t set up do mass deletions, this took almost 20 minutes.

Now, I could have taken this blatantly unfair series of events in any number of ways. I could have shaken my head over just how much time advancing technology manages to waste in all of our lives — as any aspiring writer trying to blandish a recalcitrant PC into printing a document in standard format (it’s easier on a Mac), unless the program’s designers happened to envision the problem one wants to solve, even the simplest change can eat up hours. I could also have wondered whether Facebook had invented this glitch on purpose, as an excuse to get rid of subscribers. I could even have thrown up my hands and concluded that the computers have become sentient — if not particularly intelligent — and are now turning on their masters.

But I’m an editor by trade. The very first words I uttered when I finally tracked down what the problem was: “94 posts that all say the same thing! That’s almost as repetitious as dialogue in the average submission.”

Hey, my assistant laughed when I said it. Shortly before I told her to take a long weekend and walked out the door myself, seeking a soothing walk in the rain, early spring flowers, and some peace from computer systems that have apparently decided the next step toward world domination is to create a class of unjustly accused computer outcasts.

Early in my walk, I had intended to use that anecdote as a springboard for a well-justified lecture about the dangers of replicating the extreme redundancy of everyday speech on the manuscript page, but by the time I returned home, rivulets streaming from my hair, the muses had talked me into a sneakier way to make a literary point. Ahem: did you catch the rather fundamental storytelling error I deliberately inserted into that story?

Hint: it happens in comic manuscripts so often that our old pal, Millicent the agency screener, automatically twitches a little at the very sight of it.

If you flung your hand in the air and yelled, “I know, Anne! The narrative had another character, your assistant, laugh as a means of demonstrating that a joke was funny,” you already have an A for the day. If you added, “And the assistant character didn’t appear in the story until she was needed to provide the laugh track,” make that an A+.

What about this narrative trick sets Millie a-twitching, you ask? To a professional reader, it’s a telltale sign of authorial insecurity: if the writer were positive that the joke were really funny, Millicent reasons, why would he think the reader needed a prompt to laugh?

Comedic insecurity’s shows up in a few other twitch-inducing manifestations on the manuscript page. I’ve included specimens of four kinds in the following sterling piece of prose — and, just for kicks, another common non-humor pet peeve. See if you can spot them all.

Melvyn glanced stealthily over his shoulder. No one had ever caught him hacking into someone else’s account to post endlessly redundant messages; he wasn’t even sure what dire punishment would await a brave soul caught doing such a thing. Trembling, he reached a hairy forefinger toward the ENTER key.

“Hey, geek.” Clarice came bouncing into the room, a stack of invoices wedged under her arm. “You hiding from the boss? She’s on a fourteen-apple rampage.”

Melvyn chuckled. Arnette was always on some kind of rampage, so he and the other staffers had come up with a rating scale like the one used for diamonds: the weightier her mood, the bigger the number of carats. Bill had just gotten engaged at the time, so solitaire classifications were much discussed around the office. Then some office wag decided that carats weren’t funny enough and changed them to apples. A fourteen-apple rampage must have been impressive to behold.

If you guessed that one of the problems was that the explanation in the last paragraph was boring enough to send Millicent’s weary eyes wandering morosely toward the window to contemplating the sweet spring day outside, well, you have a point. Like so many inside jokes ripped from real-life situations and reproduced faithfully on the page, this bit of office humor falls a bit flat.

A word to the wise: jokes like this should be test-driven verbally before you even consider typing them into your manuscript — and driven by people who do not know anything about the original context of the joke. If total strangers do not respond with mirth, chances are that, as the saying goes, you had to be there in order to find it funny.

Millicent was most assuredly not there. Need I say more?

What else is wrong with this bit of failed office humor? Did you notice that the text laid no foundation for the joke? Had an earlier scene featured some reference to the carat rating system, Clarice’s changing it to apples might have been spontaneously funny. Heck, there could be a running joke where each staffer substitutes his or her own favored fruit, vegetable, or legume.

Okay, so maybe you still would have had to be there. But there’s no denying that the last paragraph was funnier because it contained the word legume.

Unexpected words can often liven up an otherwise so-so bit of humor. As we saw in the example above, the opposite is also true: uninspired word choices can flatten even a funny situation on the page. And when the situation isn’t all that funny in the first place…

Well, I don’t think any of us want to be there, do we?

I spot a few clowns with their oversized gloves in the air. Yes, Bozo? “But Anne,” the red-nosed one points out, and who am I to deny the request of someone in a rainbow-hued fright wig? “How do we know that the author of that example hadn’t set up the joke earlier in the book? This is just an isolated excerpt; we really don’t know anything about context.”

Good point, but would you mind not honking that ooga horn in my face? Thank you so much. Something in the passage itself told me as clearly as if the author had hoisted a ten-foot banner reading FIRST WE’VE HEARD OF THIS over the page that the text had been a trifle light on set up. Any guesses what it was?

If you immediately started jumping up and down, shouting, “If a foundation had been laid for that joke, the turgid paragraph-long explanation would have been unnecessary,” your cup runneth over with editorial virtue. Properly set-up humor does not require further explanation — in fact, telling someone who didn’t laugh why a joke was funny is one of the surest ways to kill any residual humor that might have been lingering in the atmosphere.

Is that plain, or shall I re-explain it? Over and over again, until you wish I had never brought it up in the first place?

On the manuscript page, explanation after the fact is one of the surest signs that the writer has doubts about the joke. “If she thought that it could stand alone,” Millicent mutters, “why would she have slowed the scene down with a paragraph of explanation. Next!”

In response to what half of you just thought: yes, failed humor is often an instant-rejection violation, at least within the first few pages of a submission — and not merely because it’s a high dive that ended in a belly flop. It’s a voice issue, and a marketing one. While the genuinely funny is quite refreshing to find in the middle of a stack of manuscripts, if only because of its rarity, jokes that don’t work tell professional readers that the writer is not yet closely in tune with his audience.

His intended reading audience, that is, not just first readers he may have plucked from his doubtless wide and admiring acquaintance to serve as first readers. It’s an unavoidable reality of comedy writing that people who know and love the author are far more likely to laugh at his jokes than total strangers.

Trust me, Millicent has heard, “But it made my mom/husband/wife/sibling/coworker howl with laughter!” many, many times; to the pros, it’s simply irrelevant. No matter how much a joke or situation may have ‘em rolling in the aisles of your favorite dispenser of alcoholic beverages, if it doesn’t make a stranger laugh as it is written on the page, it’s likely to be a liability at submission time.

Okay, writers without comedic aspirations, your time has come: what was the other common Millicents’ pet peeve? Hint: it appeared in the following sentence.

Then some office wag decided that carats weren’t funny enough and changed them to apples.

Give up? It’s that pesky then, used in a manner that is actually rare not to find in a novel or memoir submission. (Again, don’t underestimate how much sheer repetition can contribute to a professional reader’s negative reaction to a manuscript gaffe. You try seeing the same narrative device in 75 different submissions in a week, and you might well start twitching, too.)

Okay, so that’s a tiny pet peeve — but as we have seen throughout this series, a series of small missteps can add up to rejection fairly quickly. Especially if several of them have chosen to congregate on page 1.

But why might this innocent-seeming word have begun annoying the pros in the first place? An editorial antipathy toward redundancy, mostly: when used in the way we see it above, to indicate that what came next occurred after what’s just been described, then — and its even more popular sibling, and then — are technically unnecessary. In English prose, unless the reader is specifically told that time is not running in a linear manner, events described are assumed to have occurred in the order they appear on the page.

That being the case, why is it necessary to tell the reader that the office wag’s decision came after the carat joke had spread throughout the office? Does the reader have any reason to think that it didn’t happen next?

Instead, why not reserve then to introduce turns of event that might genuinely startle the reader? Millicent is far less likely to object to it as the clarion call of an unexpected sudden plot twist than as a simple and unnecessary notation of the passage of time. Take a gander:

Bill had just gotten engaged at the time, so solitaire classifications were much discussed around the office. Then in the middle of the fifth straight day of coffee-break chat on the subject, Arnette swept into the employee lounge, wielding a roll of duct tape. She slapped a piece across every kisser that so much as uttered the word carat. Thereafter, we were careful to use euphemisms.

Didn’t see that coming, did you? That’s a surprise more than worthy of being introduced to Millicent by then.

Yes, Bozo? You honked your horn? “I wouldn’t really mind Millicent’s objecting to my use of then, or even not finding my jokes funny; I get that my humor might not be everyone’s proverbial cup of tea. I also get that agency screeners read a lot of submissions in a day. What I object to is not being told what specifically triggered the rejection. How hard would it be to scrawl a single sentence fragment in the margins at the point where they stopped reading, so the submitting writer would know why the manuscript was rejected? Or even just make a mark on the page, so the writer would know where the screener stopped reading?”

I have to say, I’m with you on this one, campers: a simple checklist of the most common rejection reasons would take Millicent very little time to fill out. It would be even speedier to print up a few hundred thousand stickers reading, “Show, don’t tell!” or “Where’s the conflict?” so she could slap ‘em on the manuscript page at the precise point where her pet peeve got to her. At least then, the writer could learn enough from the submission experience to improve the manuscript before trying again.

But that, alas, is not the reality of submission in the current hyper-competitive literary environment. We could expend a great deal of energy resenting that the process is set up not to help aspiring writers learn how to get better at submission, but for Millicent to be able to reject as high a proportion of requested materials as possible, to narrow the masses down to the happy few her boss has time to read and consider.

I don’t know about you, but I would rather invest my energies in teaching you to rid your submissions of the most frequent red flags. For the rest of today’s post, I shall concentrate on the rejection reasons that would make the most sense for agency screeners to rubber-stamp upon submissions: ubiquitous problems that are relatively easy for the writer to fix.

If she knows to fix them, that is.

One of my favorite easily-fixed common problems: a manuscript aimed at an adult audience that has a teenage protagonist in the opening scene. If the teenager is the focus of page 1, Millicent is prone to say, “Oh, this is YA — the writer must think that we represent it. Next!”

Remember, there is no easier rejection than a book category that an agency does not handle. (That’s one reason that most agencies prefer query letters to contain the book category in the first paragraph, FYI: it enables agency screeners to reject queries about types of books they do not represent without reading the rest of the letter.) In an agency that represents both, the submission would be read with a different target market in mind, and thus judged by the wrong rules.

“Wait just a cotton-picking minute!” I here some of you out there murmuring. “This isn’t my fault; it’s the screener’s. All anyone at an agency would have to do to tell the difference is to take a look at the synopsis they asked me to include, and…”

Stop right there, oh murmurers, because you’re about to go down a logical wrong path. As we discussed earlier in this series, you can’t legitimately assume that Millicent is going to read your synopsis prior to reading your submission — or indeed at all. Nor is she even remotely likely to have your query letter at her elbow when she begins your manuscript, so she may refresh her recollection of what the book is about. As an unfortunate but direct result, it’s never safe to assume that the screener deciding whether your first page works or not is already familiar with your premise.

Why? Limited time. Millicent needs to figure out whether the submission in front of her is a compelling story, true, but she also needs to be able to determine whether the writing is good AND the style appropriate to the subject matter. An adult style and vocabulary in a book pitched at 13-year-olds, obviously, would send up some red flags in her mind.

Or even in a book she assumes is aimed at 13-year-olds. For those of you who write about teenagers for the adult market, I have a bold suggestion: make sure that your title and style in the opening pages reflect a sensibility that is unquestionably adult, so your work is judged by the right rules. This can be genuinely difficult if your narrator is a teenager.

Which brings me to another easily-fixed rejection reason: narration in a kid’s voice that does not come across as age-appropriate. This issue crops up all the time not just in YA, but in books about children aimed at adult readers — as a general rule of thumb, if your protagonist is a pre-Civil War teenaged farmhand, he should not speak as if he graduated from Dartmouth in 2002. Nor should a narrator who is a 6-year-old girl wield the vocabulary of an English Literature professor.

Oh, you may laugh. Care to guess how many novels like that the average Millicent sees in a year?

Usually, though, the misfit between narrator and voice is not quite so obvious. Often, teenage protagonists are portrayed from an adult’s, or even a parent’s, point of view, creating narrators who are hyper-aware that hormones are causing their mood swings or character behavior apparently motivated (from the reader’s point of view, anyway) solely by age, not individual personality or the ambient conditions. But teenagers, by and large, do not think of themselves as moody, impossible, or even resentful; most of them, when asked, will report that they are just trying to get along in situations where they have responsibilities but few rights and little say over what they do with their time and energy.

Yet screeners are constantly seeing openings where teenage girls practice bulimia simply because they want to fit in, teenage boys act like James Dean in REBEL WITHOUT A CAUSE, teenage characters flounce off to their rooms to sulk — and everyone between the ages of 10 and 19 habitually says, “Whatever,” and rolls his or her eyes on the slightest provocation. Yes, some teenagers do these things, undoubtedly, but in novels, these behaviors have been documented so often that they come across as clichés. Compounding the problem: teenage characters and narrators who diagnose these activities as an adult would are accordingly rife.

That might not bug a 45-year-old professional reader very much, but agency screeners and editorial assistants tend to be really young: many weren’t teenagers all that long ago. Sometimes, they are still young enough to resent having been pigeonholed in their recent youths, and if your manuscript is sitting in front of them, what better opportunity to express that resentment than rejecting it is likely to present itself?

So do be careful, and make sure you are showing Millicent something she doesn’t see twenty times per week. When in doubt, take a long, hard look at your teenage characters and ask yourself, “Is this kid continually emitting martyred signs because of what’s going on, or because of who he is as an individual? Or — and I need to be honest here — is he doing this simply because this is how I think teenagers in general act?”

Those questions are worth acting with any character who happens to be a member of a commonly-stereotyped group (“Are all of the pretty characters in my book dumb, and the homely ones smart?”), but perhaps because so many first-time novelists of books about teens are the parents of same, Millicent tends to be especially sensitive to stereotyping of the young. And I have to say, I’m with her on this one: the best opening with a teenage protagonist I ever saw specifically had the girl snap out of an agony of self-doubt (which could easily have degenerated into cliché) into responsible behavior in the face of a crisis on page 1. To submission-wearied professional eyes, reading a manuscript where the teenaged protagonist had that kind of emotional range was like jumping into a swimming pool on a hot day: most refreshing.

One of the most common ways to tactics up a teenage scene in the past is an opening including quotes from song lyrics. Yes, this can be an effective way to establish a timeframe without coming out and saying, hey, reader, it’s 1982, but it is also very, very overused. I blame this tactic’s use in movies and TV: in the old days, soundtracks used to contain emotionally evocative incidental music, but in recent years, the soundtrack for any movie set in the 20th-century past is a virtual replica of the K-Tel greatest hits of (fill in timeframe), as if no one in any historical period ever listed to anything but top 40.

I’m fairly confident, for instance, that there was no period in American history where dance bands played only the Charleston, where every radio played nothing but American Pie, or every television was tuned to THE ED SULLIVAN SHOW. Yes, even when Elvis or the Beatles appeared on it. Writers are creative people — don’t we owe it to ourselves as a group to mix it up a bit more?

Other than ubiquity, there are other reasons that agents and their screeners tend to frown upon the inclusion of song lyrics in the opening pages of a book. Unless the song is within the public domain — and the last time I checked, Happy Birthday still wasn’t, so we are talking about a long lead time here — the publisher will need to get permission from whoever owns the rights to the song in order to reproduce it.

Translation: song lyrics on page one automatically mean more work for the editor. And possibly expense. Think that will make the book harder or easier for Millicent’s boss to sell?

Also, one of the benefits of setting a sentiment to music is that it is easier to sound profound in song than on the printed page. No disrespect to song stylists, but if you or I penned some of those lines, we would be laughed out of our writers’ groups. For this reason, song lyrics taken out of context and plopped onto the page often fall utterly flat — especially if the screener is too young to have any personal associations with that song.

Yes, that makes me feel rather old sometimes, too.

It is unclear whether the narrator is alive or dead started cropping up on a lot of agents’ pet peeve lists immediately after THE LOVELY BONES came out. Ghostly narrators began wandering into agencies with a frequency unseen since the old TWILIGHT ZONE series was influencing how fantasy was written in North America on a weekly basis. And wouldn’t you know it, the twist in many of these submissions turns out to be that the reader doesn’t learn that the narrator is an unusually chatty corpse until late in the book, or at any rate after the first paragraph of the first page.

Remember what I was saying the other day about Millicent’s not liking to feel tricked by the early pages of a submission in to thinking the story is about something that it isn’t? Well…

I’ll leave you to ponder the possibilities. I’m off to have dinner with a sulky teenager who prattles on about peer pressure, a child who speaks as though she is about to start collecting Social Security any day now, and a fellow who may or may not have kicked the bucket half a decade ago. Honestly, if agents and editors would only recognize that we writers are merely holding, as ’twere, the mirror up to nature, all of our lives would be infinitely easier.

Insert eye roll here. Followed by a nice, long blast on Bozo’s horn, just in case anyone didn’t get that the last suggestion was a joke. Keep up the good work!

What’s so funny about comedy writing? A conversation between novelist Jonathan Selwood and SEX author Mike Sacks


I’m taking a quick break from Synopsispalooza to bring you a treat, campers: a conversation on comedy writing between two of the best out there: Jonathan Selwood, author of one of my all-time favorite comic novels, The Pinball Theory of Apocalypse, and Mike Sacks’, one of the authors of Random House’s recently-released SEX: OUR BODIES, OUR JUNK. Since FAAB (Friend of Author! Author! Blog) Jonathan has already regaled us with a couple of funny and insightful guest posts on the art of writing dark comedy (links: post 1 and post 2), I asked him to sit down with Mike to talk about being funny in general and being funny about sex in particular.

The result was absolutely hilarious, in a very explicit way, as one might expect from two authors who write about sex. I wish I could share that interview with you, but if I did, every parental Internet blocking program and every public library’s web screener would light up like a Christmas tree.

Which is, in a way, very much to Jonathan and Mike’s credit: they know their respective audiences. But if I shared that particular interview with mine, my teen readers might not be able to read it; I am very committed to keeping this site accessible to them. So I asked the gentlemen concerned to do a nuts-and-bolts interview on comedy writing instead, something in the style of Mike’s guest post last year, a fabulous discussion of the art of being funny with legendary comedy writer Merrill Markoe, and they graciously assented.

As some of you may recall from my announcement of Mike’s book release in August, this was not the first time I had run into this problem. If I so much as posted the publisher’s blurb for SEX verbatim, as is my wont with new releases, most Internet filters of the type employed by parents and public libraries would have blocked the post. At the time, we all tittered together at a screening program’s not being bright enough to tell the difference between comedy and {WORD EXPUNGED}, but such is the world in which we live.

So how did I end up handling it? I did in fact post the publisher’s blurb in my publication announcement, but to ascertain that the post would be accessible to as many of my regular readers as possible, though, I placed a few discreet visual barriers in front of the words and concepts that might prove problematic. Here is the result.

Mike Sacks sex cover


The Association for the Betterment of Sex (A.B.S.) presents Sex: Our Bodies, Our Junk, a radical and invaluable resource for improving your sexual communication—whether you have been in a committed relationship for years, or have just moments ago removed the shrinkwrap from your new {EXPUNGED}.

Here are just a few sensual revelations you’ll find within these pages:

– The precise location of the female {EXPUNGED} (latitude and longitude)

– “Going on tour with Midnight Oil” and more outmoded {EXPUNGED}slang

– Forced perspective and other techniques for visually enhancing the size of {EXPUNGED}

– The Top Five pastry-related euphemisms for {EXPUNGED}

– How to score big at your next {EXPUNGED} party, with our crowd-pleasing ambrosia-salad recipe

– Listings of “Don’t ask, Don’t tell” dry-cleaning services, for freshening up your vinyl {EXPUNGED} or adult-sized {EXPUNGED}costume

– Your first {EXPUNGED}, and how the ancient Mayans predicted it wouldn’t go over so hot

Exhaustively researched and fully illustrated, Sex: Our Bodies, Our Junk is a must-read for you, your sexual partner(s), and anyone who wishes there was more to sex than {EXPUNGED} for a few seconds and begging for forgiveness.

Nor is Jonathan, our interviewer du jour, to be outdone on the subversive comedy on sexuality front. His novel’s frank, hilarious presentations of {EXPUNGED} reconstructive surgery and {EXPUNGED}{EXPUNGED}{EXPUNGED} during an earthquake set the LA ethos on its proverbial ear. Here’s the relatively clean publisher’s blurb for THE PINBALL THEORY OF APOCALYPSE:

pinball theory cover selwood

For years, painter Isabel Raven has made an almost-living forging Impressionist masterpieces to decorate the McMansions of the not-quite-Sotheby’s-auction rich. But when she serendipitously hits on an idea that turns her into the It Girl of the L.A. art scene, her career takes off just as the rest of her life heads south. Her personal-chef boyfriend is having a wild sexual dalliance with the teenage self-styled Latina Britney Spears. If Isabel refuses to participate in an excruciatingly humiliating ad campaign, her sociopathic art dealer is threatening to gut her like an emu. And her reclusive physicist father has conclusively proven that the end of the world is just around the corner. 

Now, with the Apocalypse looming — and with only a disaffected Dutch-Eskimo billionaire philanthropist and his dissolute thirteen-year-old adopted daughter to guide her — there’s barely enough time remaining for Isabel to reexamine her fragile delusional existence…and the delusional reality of her schizophrenic native city.

As I said, these two authors had a lot to talk about, and I genuinely regret that I cannot bring you their original, unexpurgated conversation. But what would have been the fun of your trying to decipher what they had to say between all of those {EXPUNGED} barriers? Here instead, for the benefit of all of you aspiring comedy writers out there, is their second conversation. Enjoy!

Oh, and Synopsispalooza will be starting up again on Saturday evening — I’m taking a couple of days off to celebrate my birthday. Back to the grindstone soon!

pinball theory cover selwoodMike Sacks sex coverpinball theory cover selwoodMike Sacks sex coverpinball theory cover selwoodMike Sacks sex coverpinball theory cover selwood

Jonathan Selwood: First, could you please give a brief (ahem, PG-13) description of your new book, SEX: OUR BODIES, OUR JUNK for any of our blog readers who have yet to pick up a copy?

Mike Sacks: Sure. It’s a parody of a sex manual, the type you might have found
next to your parents’ bed when you were growing up. You know the kind:
illustrations of aging hippies, strange words, even stranger
descriptions. The premise of our book is that it was written by an
association in Washington DC called The Association for the Betterment
of Sex. It’s run by five guys (us), all of whom know very little about
sex. We find women very mysterious and sex sort of puzzling. In short,
we’re idiots, not to be trusted.

How did you get into comedy writing? Was it something you always knew you wanted to do?

I didn’t know what I wanted to do when I was growing up, but I read a
lot of books and I always loved comedy. For a time I wanted to be a
pilot and then a surgeon. Alas, my grades were really mediocre, so I
began to write, just for fun. After college I worked in a record store
for a few years until I figured that writing was a more interesting
way to make a living than retail, which is the worst. I began to sell
articles to Cracked magazine, as well as MAD and National Lampoon. And
there began my rise to the middle.

I’m sure you’ve heard the phrase “Dying is easy. Comedy is hard.” Many “serious” writers (and readers) fail to recognize how hard it is to be truly funny on the page. Are you ever frustrated by the fact that so many people believe funny = easy?

Not really, no. It’s not necessarily a reader’s job to know how
difficult it is to write comedy for the page, but I can tell you that
they quickly learn if they try it for themselves. It does take a
specific set of chops. So even if you’re a good writer, you’re not
necessarily going to be good at writing something that’s funny. And
the page is a whole different beast than writing for TV or the movies
or the stage. But it’s not impossible, of course. It’s like learning
any sort of skill set: playing the piano, cooking a soufflé, or
learning how to sing. The difference with writing, I suppose, is that
you have to teach yourself. People may disagree with this, but I think
you really do have to sit down, day after day, and just write. And
learn from your mistakes.

You worked with four other top tier comedy writers in writing SEX: OUR BODIES, OUR JUNK. Do you find that this type of collaboration leads more towards supportive teamwork or cutthroat competition? In other words, are you helping each other along the way, or always trying to one-up each other with your jokes?

No, at a certain level, a writer knows that a group project shouldn’t
be looked at as a competition. If a joke doesn’t work, it doesn’t
work. And if that bothers you, you should probably not write with
others. The end product is what matters. If another writer’s joke is
better than yours, you should go with that. You can always use your
joke in another piece, down the road. I loved working with these guys.
In a sense, it was a lot easier than writing alone. I’m now associated
with jokes that I didn’t write and never could have thought of for
myself. It was a pleasure. But you do have to be willing to be a
little flexible and put aside your ego for the common good.

I often find that once I can nail down the appropriate “tone” in a comedic work, things start to fall into place. How important is finding the right tone in your own work, and how on earth did you manage to keep a consistent tone with so many different writers on SEX: OUR BODIES, OUR JUNK?

Well, that is extremely important, especially when you work with
others. We started the project with a general idea of what we wanted
to do, and through trial and error, finally came up with a tone that
we were all happy with. It was pretty easy sticking with that tone
throughout the process of writing the book. We all just sort of fell
into it. And if one of us strayed from it, we would just tweak that
joke to make it more consistent. But, yes, finding that right tone is
a vital part of the process in writing any humor piece.

As a follow-up, do you ever sacrifice a joke to keep the appropriate tone (no matter how funny it is), or does a great joke trump consistency of tone?

There are definitely cases where a joke is not “pitch perfect” with
the rest of the jokes, but as long as they hold true to the
characters, then we kept it in. There was some margin for error–as
it’s not a serious sex book. Also, all of the characters are sort of
moronic and capable of saying anything. So that worked in our favor.
When you have stupid characters, you’re allowed more freedom.

Do you have any pre-writing rituals to put yourself in a comedic mindset? Say, putting on a pair of fuzzy bunny slippers, or chugging a half-gallon of cheap scotch?

No. Just booting up the computer, putting on headphones and wearing my
“DO NOT DISTURB” baseball cap.

And last, now that book is done and bestsellerdom is merely a technicality, what’s next for Mike Sacks? More work with the SEX: OUR BODIES, OUR JUNK team? Or do you have solo projects in mind?

I have a third book coming out in March 2011 from Tin House Books.
It’s a collection of 55 published short humor pieces from The New
Yorker, Esquire, Vanity Fair, McSweeney’s and other publications. It’s
called “Your Wildest Dreams, Within Reality.” After that, I’m free.
Free for what I don’t know yet, but I’ll be free. In the meantime,
write to me at mikebsacks(at)gmail(dot)com Or just send me a new “DO NOT

selwood-1Jonathan Selwood is the author of the dark comedy THE PINBALL THEORY OF APOCALYPSE. Like all native Oregonians, Selwood was born in California. He enjoys talking very loudly when intoxicated, composting kitchen scraps, excessively rolling his Rs when ordering burrrrrritos… using ellipses…

mikesackslogoMike Sacks has written for Vanity Fair, Esquire, GQ, The New Yorker, Time, McSweeney’s, Radar, MAD, New York Observer, Premiere, Believer, Vice, Maxim, Women’s Health, and Salon. He has worked at The Washington Post, and is currently on the editorial staff of Vanity Fair.

His first book, And Here’s the Kicker: Conversations with 21 Humor Writers About Their Craft, was released in Summer 2009. Some of those interviewed include: George Meyer, Harold Ramis, Al Jaffee, Buck Henry, Bob Odenkirk, Stephen Merchant, David Sedaris, Jack Handey, Robert Smigel, and Daniel Clowes.

Querypalooza, part XXIII: when the going gets tough, the tough get…wait — what do you mean, they wanted 50 CONSECUTIVE pages?


My apologies for breaking up that interesting submission practicalities in the morning/query composition in the evening rhythm we’d had going here for the last few days of Querypalooza. I had fully intended to sit down and write another example-stuffed post on the subtle differences that frequently separate a successful query from one less likely to generate a request for pages, saving the partials-related information below for tomorrow morning.

A few hours ago, however, I received some very bad news about a blog-related situation I absolutely had to drop everything and correct right away. It ate up much of today’s writing time. Fortunately, I already had this post written: I had intended to deal with partials at the end of last week, before I got carried away by excitement over generating full query examples.

So I decided that it would make more sense to post it now, rather than writing frantically into the wee hours on a content-related post. That way, we all get to bed earlier, and the post quality will almost certainly reflect my bad day less. (Case in point: when I did try to generate examples this evening — surprise, surprise — the storylines all seemed to relate to this afternoon’s crisis. Not really fair to you, that.)

Last time, I wrapped up my advice on the assembly and packaging of a requested partial with some advice long-time readers of this blog MAY have heard before:

broken-record No matter how many pages or extra materials you were asked to send, do remember to read your submission packet IN ITS ENTIRETY, IN HARD COPY, and OUT LOUD before you seal that envelope. Lest we forget, everything you send to an agency is a writing sample: impeccable grammar, punctuation, and printing, please.

Sometimes, one’s own weary peepers are not up to the job — and with good reason. If you’ve been up half the night printing out those pages the agent of your dreams requested yesterday, so you may pop them in the mail first thing tomorrow, chances are that you’re going to be more than a little stressed out and tired by the time you get around to proofreading.

Heck, you may even be so longing for your pillow’s sweet, sweet embrace that you find yourself sorely tempted — dare I say it? Apparently, I do — to blow off this necessary step and seal the envelope. Or hit the SEND key.

That would be a bad idea, and not only because even a cursory once-over might have caught that missed word in the middle of the second paragraph of your first page. You know, the one left over from your third revision, when you decided your opening needed more action. (You haven’t read it in hard copy since you made that change, have you? Too bad; Millicent the agency screener was kind of liking that scene — but she knows from experience that a revision-hangover typo on page 1 is probably indicative of a Frankenstein manuscript full of similar half-made changes.)

It would be an equally bad idea to send out a query packet without last-minute proofreading, and not only because then, you might have noticed that you eliminated some grammatically-necessary punctuation when you cut out a sentence because it made your letter longer than a single page. (See parenthetical logic in previous paragraph for the probable conclusion. Hey, I don’t call them Frankenstein queries for nothing: this easily-identifiable type of revision residua might as well be waving a white flag at Millicent, shouting, “Hey, lady! This writer doesn’t go back and re-read his own work between revisions! Doesn’t that render it quite likely that the manuscript, should you request it, will exhibit Frankenstein tendencies?)

May I make a simple suggestion to counteract the editorial deficiencies brought on by trying to rush a query or submission packet out the door? Before you rush those requested materials off to the post office or hit SEND, it’s an excellent idea to have another set of eyes scan those pages first.

Ditto with contest entries and residency applications, by the way; it’s just too easy to miss a crucial typo yourself. Particularly if you’re really in a hurry to meet a deadline — and what entrant or applicant isn’t? — and neglect to read your submission IN ITS ENTIRETY, IN HARD COPY, and OUT LOUD.

Why do I feel compelled to slip this golden piece of editorial advice into this post more than once, you ask — or, indeed, repeat it so often? Because I can already feel some of you gearing up to blow it off, that’s why.

Specifically, those of you who have been huffing impatiently throughout the last few paragraphs. “But Anne,” those of you who pride yourself on your attention to detail point out, “I must have read the pages the agent asked to see in my partial 75 times while I was revising them. I’ve read them so many times that two-thirds of my brain cells think they’re already published. What could I possibly learn by reading them again, much less IN THEIR ENTIRETY, IN HARD COPY, and OUT LOUD?”

Quite a lot, actually. Like, for instance, if when you changed your protagonist’s sister’s name from Mona to Maura, you altered every reference. Or if every line of the requested synopsis printed out legibly. Or — brace yourselves; this may be a hard one for some of you — if the minor changes you made in the course of the 71rst read are consistent with the ones from read 72.

Shall I rephrase that, to drive home the point a little harder? Okay, how’s this: had you re-read every syllable of your partial, contest entry, or writing sample tucked into a residency application between the time you made those final few changes and when you popped your last submission into the mail?

Or since you popped your last submission into the mail? What about your query letter — or, indeed, any page you have ever sent out in a query packet?

Wow, the crowd’s gone so quiet all of a sudden. Was it something I said?

For those of you who were not suddenly flung into retrospective panic about what kind of typo or printing snafu you might have inadvertently passed under Millicent the agency screener or Mehitabel the contest judge’s over-tired eyes, you needn’t take my word for how often writers realize only after something’s out the door that it wasn’t quite right. Many members of the Author! Author! community have already shared their horror stories on the subject; it makes for some enlightening reading.

Feel free to add stories of your own on that list; sharing them honestly will help other aspiring writers. But do not, I beg you, set yourself up for a spectacularly instructive anecdote by failing to read the very latest version of your partial, contest entry, or query packet writing sample IN ITS ENTIRETY, IN HARD COPY, and OUT LOUD.

Yes, even if you plan on submitting those pages via e-mail or by entering copying and pasting them into a form on an agency’s website. On average, people read 70% faster on a backlit screen; unless you share Superman’s optometrist, you’re infinitely more likely to catch typos, logic problems, and omissions in hard copy than soft copy.

(The lenses in Clark Kent’s glasses aren’t prescription, you see, but clear, and thus his vision is…oh, never mind.)

While I’m already hovering over you like a mother hen, here’s a post-submission regret I hope I can wipe from the face of the earth forever: including a business-size (#10) envelope as the SASE for a partial or a contest that returns materials, rather than an envelope (and appropriate postage) large enough to send back everything in the submission or entry packet.

“But Anne!” half of those with submissions currently languishing at agencies across the U.S. cry. “I thought the point of the SASE — that stands for Self-Addressed Stamped Envelope, right? — was so the agent who requested the partial could mail me a letter, asking me to send the rest of the manuscript. Or, heaven forfend, a rejection letter! If he didn’t like my pages, wouldn’t he just, you know, toss ‘em in the trash or recycling bin?”

Well, the agent (or, more likely, the agent’s Millicent-in-residence) usually does include at least a form-letter rejection in a homeward-bound SASE, but that’s not the SASE’s primary purpose, from the agency’s point of view. As we have discussed at some length over the past few days, its primary use is to get all of those pages out of its office and back to the aspiring writers who sent them.

That’s not just because if they didn’t, the average agency’s halls would be so filled with rejected pages by the end of the first month that Millicent wouldn’t be able to fight her way to the coffeemaker through the chest-high stacks of pages. (She would have had to give up her traditional lattes by the end of the first week; she wouldn’t be able to find the front door during her lunch break.) They also return the pages because it’s in the writer’s copyright interest to know precisely where his pages are at any given time — and should any of that seem paranoid to you, you might want to take a gander at the SHOULD I WORRY ABOUT MY WORK BEING STOLEN? category on the archive list at right.

If, on the other hand, the idea of a submission’s tumbling into unscrupulous hands doesn’t strike you as particularly outrageous, but the logic behind the writer’s providing the postage to convey her own rejection to her does, I would recommend a quick read through the posts under the SASE GUIDELINES category.

And for those of you reading this post in a tearing hurry because you’re frantically trying to get a partial out the door and into the mail, or whose fingers are itching to hit the SEND key for electronic submissions, let me just go ahead and state it as a boldfaced aphorism: with any submission, always include a SASE sufficiently large for the agent to send the entire submission back to you, with enough stamps attached to get it there safely.

Again, emphasis on stamps. Attaching metered postage to a SASE is another fairly common mistake in submitting a partial. So is neglecting to add any postage at all. Out comes the broken record player again:

broken-record The vast majority of agencies will simply not use a stamp-free SASE. Instead, the entire query or submission packet will be unceremoniously dumped in the trash.

Or recycling. Although you’d be astonished at how many agencies — how to put this gracefully? — don’t take full advantage of all of that space in their recycling bins.

A third common mistake submitters of partials often make comes not when they are packing up the partial, but later, after the agent has approved the partial and asked to see the full manuscript. That’s the agency parlance for the request, anyway; in writer-speak, it’s usually called asking to see the rest of the book.

Therein lies the root of the mistake: the semantic difference is crucial here. All too often, successful partial submitters think that a request for the entire manuscript equals a request for only the part of the manuscript the agent has not yet seen.

The agent asked to see the rest of the book, right?

Actually, she didn’t — what asking to see the rest of the book means in agent-speak is that the agent is expecting the ENTIRE manuscript to show up in her office, neatly boxed and accompanied by a return mailing label and enough postage to get the whole shebang back to the sender, if it’s rejected.

Starting to see a pattern here?

I do — and have for years: when aspiring writers just assume that they know what a request for materials entails, submissions often go awry; ditto with query packets. When they take the time to find out what is actually being requested (or is called for in an individual agency’s guidelines), irritating Millicent by such mistakes is 99.999% avoidable. (Hey, there’s no accounting for how moody she might get when she burns her lip on that too-hot latte for the fiftieth time this year.)

Sadly, much of the time, the difference isn’t even the result of conscious step-skipping. Many first-time submitters — and virtually all first-time queriers – frequently don’t even know that there are rules to be followed.

Want to know what half the Millicents currently screening would say in response to that last sentence? It’s illuminating about the calm harshness of professional evaluation: “So I’m supposed to make allowances because these writers didn’t do their homework, effectively penalizing all of those conscientious writers out there who take the time to learn the ropes? I’ll bet that most of these mistaken submitters didn’t even bother to check whether my agency’s website has submission guidelines.”

To which Mehitabel would add: “And virtually every contest on earth includes very specific submission guidelines in its rules, yet I’m continually astonished by how few entrants seem to read them. I’ll seldom actually disqualify an entry because it violates a presentation rule, but how can I justify penalizing all of those nice entrants who did follow the rules by allowing a violator to proceed to the finalist round of judging?”

Okay, so maybe they wouldn’t be quite that forthcoming. Or prolix. If I’m going to be completely honest, I would have to admit that this is what either of them is most likely to say when such a submission crossed their line of vision: “Next!”

broken-record Please, do your homework about the recipient’s stated preferences before you submit any requested materials. Not every agency is kind enough to writers to post specific guidelines, but if you happen to be dealing with one that has, you absolutely must follow them, or risk the wrath of Millicent.

The results of that wrath are not pretty: summary rejection seldom is. Neither is Mehitabel’s wrath, or the as-yet-to-be-named individual screening applications for that writers’ retreat you would give your eyeteeth to attend.

I’m taking christening suggestions for the application screener, by the way. I’d originally dubbed her Petunia, but that doesn’t exactly inspire awe and fear, does it? (In case any of you had been wondering over the years, everybody’s favorite agency screener is called Millicent here at Author! Author! because it means she who works hard. I’ve said it before, and I shall no doubt say it again: screening is incredibly hard work, and as much as aspiring writers may resent having to learn what Millicent is under orders to resent, the US-based agency system simply would not work without our Millie taking the time to look through all of those submissions and queries. So when the agent of your dreams discovers you, you might want to send her a thank-you note: in all probability, she was the first person in the publishing industry to notice your book’s potential.)

Another major mistake that dogs query packets, submission packets, and contest entries involves confusing a partial with a writing sample. What’s the difference, you ask? Well, chant it with me now, followers of this series:

A partial is the first X number of pages of a manuscript assumed already to be complete, numbered consecutively and stopping at the bottom of the exact page the requester specified as the maximum. A writing sample is a selection of a book’s best writing, regardless of where it falls in the book.

When an agency’s guidelines request five or ten pages to be included with the query, however, they are talking about the first five or ten pages of the manuscript. So even though query packet pages are indeed a writing sample, they should be treated like a submission.

That strikes many aspiring writers as counter-intuitive, and with some reason. I suspect the source of this confusion most often stems from second-hand conference anecdotes. In a pitching situation — the place an agent-seeking writer is most likely to be asked to produce an actual writing sample — 5 pages is usually the maximum length. However, a lengthy writing sample might include more than one scene, and those scenes might not run consecutively.

So when the neophyte querier who’s heard a few conference horror stories sees that an agency says he can send five pages, he may well say, “Great, I’ll send my best five pages: let’s see, that would be pp. 342-347,” where a more experienced querier would cry, “Well, obviously, the five pages they mean are pp. 1-5 of my manuscript.”

The same misunderstanding trips up a simply phenomenal number of contest entrants every year: when the rules state that an entrant should send 25 pages of the book she wants to enter, what Mehitabel is expecting to see are the first 25 pages, not a chapter from the middle that the writer happens to like. Or — and yes, I’ve seen this with my own weary eyes — 7 pages from the opening, 6 from Chapter 5, 4 from Chapter 13, and 8 from Chapter 23.

Yes, you read that correctly: sadly, they misinterpret the rules’ call for X number of pages from, say, a novel, as permission to send X number of pages from anywhere in the book, so they submit a bouquet of writing samples. Faced with such an array, most contest judges will simply stop reading.

Sorry to be the one to break that to you, contest entrants and mid-book-loving queriers. But isn’t it better that you hear the hard truth from me than rack up even one unnecessary rejection?

And yet it’s an understandable mistake, right? And extremely common, particularly in entries for contests that simply ask entrants to send a specified number of pages of a novel, without mentioning that those pages should be consecutive — oh, and if the entrant might by some odd chance want to win the contest, those pages had better begin on page 1 of Chapter 1 of the book.

Shall I take that gigantic collective gasp of indignation as an indication that some of you past contest entrants wish you had heard one or more of those tidbits before you entered?

Again, let’s state it as an aphorism, for the benefit of last-minute skimmers: unless a literary contest’s rules specifically state otherwise, assume that the entry should begin on page 1 and proceed consecutively. Part of what entrants in any prose contest are being judged upon is the ability to construct a strong narrative and story arc.

In answer to the question that most of you are probably screaming mentally, I have no idea why so few contests’ rules don’t just state this point-blank. It’s not as though it’s a rare problem — every contest judge I’ve ever met tells a sad story about the well-written entry that knocked itself out of finalist consideration via this error. And I’ve judged in a heck of a lot of literary contests, so I’ve met a whole lot of judges over the years.

I could spend a few more minutes of my life shaking my head over this, but over the years, my neck has gotten sore. I’m going to take the warning as heard — it was, wasn’t it? — and move on.

Before I do, though, let me call on those of you whose hands have been patiently raised for a while now. Yes? “But Anne, how does any of this relate to my query or submission packet? Are you perhaps implying that the last aphorism could be applied to sending partials or writing samples to agencies?”

Nicely caught, oh hand-raisers. Put another quarter in the jukebox:

broken-record Unless an agent’s request for a pages or an agency’s submission guidelines specifically state otherwise, assume that any manuscript pages should begin on page 1 and proceed consecutively. In other words, treat it like any other submission.

Writers asked to submit partials occasionally fall into the writing sample trap as well, but frankly, it’s less common. Perhaps writers marketing books harbor an inherent desire to have their stories read from beginning to end, just as a reader would encounter their work in a published book. Perhaps, too, agents’ requests for materials tend to be for much heftier portions of a manuscript than many contest entries would tolerate: 50 or 100 pages for a partial is fairly normal, but many contests for even book-length works call for as few as 10, 20, or 30 pages, sometimes including a synopsis.

But just to head any problems off at the pass, as well as to illustrate why a nonconsecutive partial made up of even superlative writing would not be a good marketing packet for any manuscript, from an agency perspective, let’s close out this short series by going over the expectations for a partial one more time.

Come on; it’ll be fun.

When an agent or editor requests a partial, she’s not asking for a writing sample consisting of 50 or 100 pages of the writer’s favorite parts of the book, a sort of greatest hits compilation — if that’s what she wants, she (or her submission guidelines; check) will tell you so point-blank. She is unlikely to prefer a writing sample as a submission, in any case, because part of what her Millicent is looking for in submissions is storytelling acumen.

Think about it: in an unconnected series of scenes gleaned from across your manuscript, how good a case could you make for your talent at arranging plot believably? How well could you possibly show off your book’s structure, or character development, or even ability to hold a reader’s interest, compared to the same story as you present it in your manuscript, beginning on page 1?

If you have any doubt whatsoever about the answer to that last question, run, don’t walk, to an objective first reader to help you figure out whether the current running order of events tells your story effectively. (Didn’t think I’d be able to work in another plug for someone else’s casting her eyes over your pages before you submit them, did you?)

What an agent or editor does expect to see in a partial, then, is the opening of the manuscript as you plan to market it to, well, agents and editors: it’s precisely the same as the full manuscript, except it doesn’t include the pages after, say, page 50.

And if Millicent loves that partial and asks for the rest of the book, what will you do? Send the entire manuscript, right? Right?

I couldn’t resist tossing in the pop quiz, to see if you’d been paying attention. I wouldn’t want any of you to end the post still confused about any of this. (And if you are: please, I implore you, leave a question in the comments.)

And remember, read any submission guidelines very thoroughly before you invest your heart, hopes, energy, and/or precious time in preparing a partial packet or contest entry. This is no time to be skimming; make a list and check it twice, like Santa Claus.

Yes, even if the request consisted of a grand total of three lines of text in an e-mail. Why? It’s very, very common for aspiring writers to become so excited by a request for pages that they forget to include something the agent specifically asked them to send.

Oh, how I wish I were making that one up…but it happens enough to show up on most Millicents’ lists of pet peeves.

So what’s the best way to avoid this terrible fate? I always advise my editing clients to pursue a multi-part strategy for an agent’s request for pages, agency guidelines, or contest rules:

1. Read the list of what’s required once, then set it aside for at least five minute.

2. Read it again, this time more carefully. Make a checklist of everything it is asking you to do. (No, a mental list will not do. Put it in writing.)

3. Wait a day before going back to triple-check that the list is accurate. Then, and only then, put together the packet or entry,

4. As you place each item in the envelope or box (or attach it to an e-mail), check off each item.


5. Re-read the original guidelines or letter, comparing what it requests to your list.

5a. If the list is an accurate reflection of the expectations, check once more that what is in your packet matches what is on the list.

5b. If it does not, remove everything from the envelope. Go back to Step 1.

5c. If you are not sure, if you’re not much of a detail person, hand your list to at least one person who happens to love you, ask him/her/that ungainly mob to check it against the guidelines or contest rules, then to verify that what’s in your envelope is in fact what you have been asked to send.

6. Seal envelope or press SEND.

You didn’t think I was going to leave the kith and kin I’d disqualified from giving you objective feedback from helping you altogether, did you? Everyone has a task here at Author! Author!

That’s what how a supportive community works, isn’t it?

In that spirit, I shall make a valiant effort to come up with a truly impressive array of enlightening query letters for tomorrow’s posts. I should be in a better mood by 10 am PST, right? Keep up the good work!

The dreaded Frankenstein manuscript, part VII: that pesky eye of the beholder again

Get Loser sign

I must confess, I had to laugh when I first spotted this billboard, campers. Even as a freelance editor, one of that happy breed that spend 12-hour days staring at backlit screens and poring over manuscripts, pouncing on redundancies, seldom do I see such a glorious demonstration of the occasionally vast difference between what a writer intends to say in print and the message the reader actually receives.

Spot the gaffe? Hint: the writer almost certainly did not intend this outcome.

Basically, the problem here is in the eye of the beholder: specifically, that the writer evidently didn’t consider that the beholder’s perspective might be any different from his own.

What makes me think that, you ask? Call me zany, but I find it hard to believe that this ad’s copywriter genuinely wished to shout at passing drivers, “Get 16X, Loser.”

Gratuitous insult of potential customers is not, after all, a recognized marketing tool, Having passed this sign from another side, I know that the ad copy is supposed to read, “Get 16X Closer.” But from the angle above — the perspective, incidentally, enjoyed by virtually every passing motorist — it doesn’t scan that way, does it?

There’s a moral in this, and not merely for placers of billboards: the author’s intended meaning does not always convey itself to the reader in its entirety. Or, to put it a bit more bluntly, just because you think you’ve said something on the page doesn’t necessarily mean that’s what the page will actually say to others.

Partially, the probability of that discrepancy is due to factors beyond any writer’s control — one cannot, after all, anticipate the life experiences or prejudices of every possible reader of one’s work, any more than a submitter could take steps to guarantee that Millicent the agency screener will not be in the throes of a very bad mood when she opens the envelope or e-mail containing his manuscript. As I’ve so often pointed out in this very forum, if she’s just burned her lip by taking a sip on a too-hot latte immediately prior to reading your query or submission, there’s really not a lot you can do about it.

She’s not a submission-processing machine, you know; she has a life. She also has a phone that rings occasionally to announce bad news, a boss prone to urging her to be on the look-out for certain types of manuscripts and not others, and chatty coworkers in an industry notoriously fond of declaring this or that kind of book hot this month, but not the next. Assuming that the only thing on her mind when she opens your envelope or e-mail is, therefore, not a practice likely to yield an accurate view of the consideration process, at least insofar as any insights derived from that view might allow you to improve your manuscript’s marketability.

What is within every writer’s control, and should therefore be uppermost in your thoughts when reading over your manuscript IN ITS ENTIRETY, IN HARD COPY, AND OUT LOUD, is the possibility that a swiftly-skimming reader might not see your pages as you do.

Why should that possibility haunt your thoughts? Well, Millicent, like most agents, editors, and contest judges, is an inveterate skimmer. She has a lot of queries and submissions to get through in any given day, after all: she reads the printed page fast, and if you should happen to submit to her via e-mail, her eyes race across the screen even faster. (As virtually everyone does, by the way; don’t blame her.)

So while you probably don’t have to worry about a stray branch occluding her vision while she’s considering your opening pages, you should be open to the possibility that she might not catch every single word. Like, for instance, the one that would tell her that Unnamed Speaker A is speaking simultaneously with Unnamed Speaker B (as), the two that would let her in on the time period in which the story in front of her is set (in 1802), or even the half-sentence in the middle of page three that might have alerted her to the fact that you were 8 years old in the anecdote you’d been relating since the beginning of Chapter 1.

Don’t tell me that she’ll pick it up from context. Picking things up from context isn’t Millicent’s job. In her opinion, it’s the writer’s job to construct a narrative so clearly that she could not possibly become confused about anything remotely important in your story, even in mid-skim.

I bring this up not merely because the sign above amused me — although it did, enough so that I cajoled my SO into driving this road the three times necessary for me to catch this particular shot — but because writers are often extremely defensive upon being informed that anything in their narratives is unclear. “But I explain that on page 37,” they’ll inform well-meaning feedback-givers snappishly. “Any reasonably attentive reader would have caught that.”

Not necessarily. Especially if the reader’s eye has already been tired by percussive repetition. Few writing phenomena urge the eye to start skipping words and even lines like too-similar phrasing in sentence after sentence.

Why, that sounds familiar, does it not? It should: last time, I introduced up the issue of structural redundancy, the phenomenon of a writer’s falling in love with a certain kind of sentence and consequently over-using it throughout a manuscript.

Like any other kind word and phrase repetition, professional readers find this distracting from the narrative voice and story, and tend to dock manuscripts points for it. If you’re planning to slide your pages under the nose of Millicent, who tends to reject submissions after deducting the second (or even the first) point, or beneath the spectacles of a contest judge, who knows that two or three points often make the difference between an entry that reaches the finals and one that doesn’t, you might want to bear this in mind.

In case you forgot throughout the course of that long last sentence precisely what you were supposed to be bearing in mind, here it is again: like any other kind of repetition, you might want to think twice about incorporating too much structural repetition into your preferred authorial voice.

After I made a similar suggestion yesterday, I could have sworn I sensed eyes rolling heavenward in writers’ garrets all across the globe. “Okay,” I heard repetition-huggers worldwide admitting reluctantly, “I can see why, for strategic reasons, I might want to minimize the use of repetitive structures in the first few pages of my manuscript, to get past Millicent or to improve my contest entry’s chances. As you said in your last post, though, an invocatory rhythm can be really cool at the end of a book, as well as to mark moments of emotional climax. If I minimize its use at the beginning of my manuscript, may I keep it elsewhere, or will Millicent fly into a tizzy if she spots it on page 102?”

The answer is, as it is so often in this business: it depends. If Millicent has already fallen in love with your voice, platform, and/or story, probably not. (Isn’t it fascinating just how many of the industry’s euphemisms for dealing with a book are amorous? I didn’t fall in love with this character; I adore this writer’s voice; the editor’s flirting with the idea of acquiring it, the critics are having a love affair with this author: it all sounds so torrid.)

To a professional reader, an abrupt descent into the not-so-wonderful world of redundancy automatically suggests that perhaps that manuscript had been incompletely revised — in other words, that it is a Frankenstein manuscript. If the rest of the book is going to be first draft, she thinks, or some unholy conglomeration of revisions one through seventeen, how can I possibly tell which of these narrative voices is going to dominate the book?

Or she might indulge in an even more serious concern: is one of these voices eventually going to dominate this book?

Would that suspicion just be the cynicism of a professional reader who has felt let down by too many promising beginnings in too many submissions? Not really — patchily-revised manuscripts are the norm for submissions, not the exception. A text that carefully varied its rhythms for 101 pages, but was redundant for the next 50, tells a professional reader that the writer either ran out of steam mid-edit or changed his mind about what he wanted his voice to sound like in the middle of writing the book. And, often, towards the end as well.

Already, a positive forest of inquiring hands has shot into the air. “Does that mean,” I hear some of you piping up hopefully, ” that Millicent would give that writer the benefit of the doubt? After all, the first 101 pages demonstrated that he could polish up his work; Millicent must have liked the original voice, to have kept reading that far. Wouldn’t it be worth taking a chance on a writer like that?”

Well, it depends, hopeful pipers-up. While she’s making that determination, does Millicent have a repetition-induced migraine coming on?

That’s not an entirely flippant answer: the pros have a legitimate point about redundancy, you know. Even when the word choices vary enough to keep things interesting (and they often don’t), it’s simply more tiring to read the same kind of sentence over and over than to read text where the form varies more. To see why this is true, we need look no farther than the early reader books of our youth.

You know the type, right? See Spot run. See Spot bite Dick. See Dick shiv Jane. Stab, Dick, stab.

Dull from an adult perspective, weren’t they? But dull with a purpose: part of their point was to encourage new readers to recognize letter patterns as particular words. Varying the sentence structure enough to render the insipid story interesting to more advanced readers would merely have distracted from the task at hand.

So we were treated to the same sentence structure for what seemed like the entire book. I have a distinct memory of taking my kindergarten copy of FROG FUN home from school (Hop, frog, hop. Hop, hop, hop: hardly Thackeray), derisively reading a two pages of it out loud to my father, and both of us deciding simultaneously that no reasonable human being would keep slogging through that much narrative repetition. He wrote a very amusing little note to my teacher about it.

I’ll spare you his choice comments about this particular authorial choice. Suffice it to say that my teacher quickly learned to send me to the library for alternate reading material.

See Anne pick a better-written book. Pick, Anne, pick.

Millicent’s teachers, unfortunately, probably kept her nose to the simple sentence grindstone for quite a bit longer — and that’s bad for submitters. Why? Well, when a professional reader sees a manuscript that uses the same sentence structure or the same few verbs use over and over, the specters of Dick, Jane, and Spot seem to rise from the page, moaning, “This is not very sophisticated writing!”

See Millie yawn over the fourth repetition of go in a single paragraph. Reject, Millie, reject.

Word and phrase repetition tends to engender this knee-jerk reaction, surprisingly, even if the chosen structure is quite complex. When one’s eye is trained to zero in on detail, it’s doesn’t take much redundancy to trigger a negative response.

In fact, a good professional reader will often catch a repetition the FIRST time it recurs — as in the second time something is mentioned in the text. It’s not unheard-of for an editorial memo to contain a angry paragraph about “your inordinate fondness for phrase X” when phrase X shows up only three or four times in the entire manuscript.

As in over the course of 400 pages. We professional readers are trained to be extremely sensitive to redundancy. Imagine, then, how much more annoying Millicent finds it when every third sentence in a manuscript begins with, It was cold when… or Breathlessly, George was… or the ever-popular, As she was doing X… .

Not a vivid enough horror picture for you? Okay, cast your mind back to yesterday’s post, and picture Millicent’s reaction to It was the best of times; it was the worst of times…

Reject, Millie, reject.

To repetition-sensitive eyes, the effect is like badly-done CGI in movies, where battle scenes between thousands of characters are created by filming 50 extras flailing at one another, copying that image, and plastering it seventeen times across the scene, perhaps alternated with two or three other images of the same actors in different positions.

Honestly, to those of us who count patterns for a living, repetition can be downright migraine-inducing. And I hate to be the one to break it to you, but repetitive phraseology can render even the most exciting, conflict-ridden scene quite a bit less nail-biting than its activity level should dictate.

“Wait just a nit-picking minute, Anne!” I hear you self-editors out there exclaiming. “English grammar only permits so many ways of arranging sentences properly. Isn’t any manuscript going to exhibit a certain amount of pattern repetition?”

Yes, of course — but that does not give writers carte blanche to use the same structures back-to-back, or to utilize a favorite complex sentence form twice per paragraph. And that’s unfortunate, because it’s not as though your garden-variety writer is repeating herself on purpose: as we have discussed earlier in this series, many a writer simply likes a kind of sentence or a particular verb enough to use it often.

I see that you’re not going to believe me until I give you a concrete example — nor should you, really. Since yesterday’s example from A TALE OF TWO CITIES was so obvious, here’s a subtle one. See if you can catch the problem:

Rubbing his sides for warmth, Stephen glanced unhappily at his fellow cheerleaders. Waving his pom-poms in a wan impression of good sportsmanship, he reminded himself never to be stupid enough to accept one of his sister’s bets again. Pulling up his flesh-colored tights — oh, why hadn’t he listened to Brian, who had told him to wear nylons under them on this near-freezing night? — he wondered if Tammy would be vicious enough to demand the performance of the promised splits before the game ended. Sighing, he figured she would. Realizing that running away now would only delay the inevitable ripping of his hamstrings, he furtively flexed his feet, trying to warm up his thigh muscles.

Quite the gerund-fest, isn’t it? Individually, there is nothing wrong with any given sentence in this paragraph. Yet taken communally — as sentences in submissions invariably are, right? — the repetition of the same kind of opening each time starts to ring like a drumbeat in Millicent’s head, distracting her from the actual subject matter, the quality of the writing…and, alas, even the blistering pace the writer worked so hard to achieve on the page.

That’s not just a voice problem, you know. It’s a marketing problem, because agents and editors generally cannot afford to work with specialists in a single type of sentence. (The lengthy and glorious career of Ernest Hemingway to the contrary.)

The sad thing is, most of the time, writers don’t even realize that they’re repeating patterns, because unless the repetition bug has really bitten them, the redundancy isn’t in every sentence. (Although I’ve seen a few that…oh, never mind; I don’t want to give you nightmares.) Or if the repetition is constant, it often lies in words or phrases that are similar, but not technically identical. Take a gander:

Arnold began sweating, sweating as though his sweat glands were going on strike tomorrow. Should he go to the window and throw it open, beginning the cooling-down process? Or should he go downstairs, into the basement, to the cool of the pickle cellar, to begin to cool his fevered brow?

That’s a lot of word repetition, is it not? To the skimming eye, it matters not at all that a rule-hugging writer could conceivably make the case that it’s not actually the same three words used over and over — it’s similar words and the same words used to mean different things.

See Millie yawn. Yawn, Millie, yawn.

Another popular form of redundancy can occur when the structures a writer favors may be common enough in themselves that she would actually need to read his pages IN HARD COPY and OUT LOUD (hint, hint) to catch the problem. As in:

“But I didn’t steal the payroll,” Claire insisted, “because I had no reason.” 

“But you did take it,” Edward shot back, “because you needed the money for your sainted mother’s operation.”

Claire’s eyes filled with tears. “You leave my sainted mother out of it, since you don’t know her.”


These three lines of dialogue feature different words, of course, but they sport identical structures. That may not seem like a serious problem on any given page, but once a professional reader notices a manuscript exhibiting this kind of repetition a couple of times, a/he will simply assume (almost always rightly, as it happens) that the pattern will recur throughout the manuscript.

How does s/he know, you ask? Experience, my dears, experience. Let me put it this way: how many horror films did you have to see before you realized that the monster/killer/Creature from the Black Lagoon wasn’t really dead the first time it appeared to be?

Did you catch the other scanning problem in that last example? No? Okay, go back and re-read it out loud: did you notice how similar those three paragraphs sound in the mouth — almost as though they were not actually the words of two different speakers?

The repetitive structure here makes Claire and Edward speak in essentially the same rhythm, as though they were echoes of the same voice. (Which, from an authorial point of view, they are, I suppose.) This is a classic instance of writerly intent and reader’s perception being at odds: when two characters speak in the same rhythm, it mutes the conflict between them a little, from the reader’s point of view.

Don’t believe me? Check out how varying the sentence structure ramps up the tension between them, even in an excerpt this short:

“But I didn’t steal the payroll,” Claire insisted, “because I had no reason.”

“You lie,” Edward shot back. “You needed the money for your sainted mother’s operation.”

Claire’s eyes filled with tears. “You leave my sainted mother out of it. You don’t know her.”

Nifty trick, eh? That, in case you were wondering, is the kind of benefit a writer is likely to derive from reading her work OUT LOUD. (Had I mentioned that was a good idea?)

But a writer need not only pay attention to how many times he’s using the same words or similar sentence structures in back-to-back sentences, but also on any given page, or even over the course of a scene. Let’s take a look at how non-consecutive repetition might play out on the page:

As the car door opened, Bernice swallowed a horrified gasp. It was Harold’s severed hand, dragging itself around the latch mechanism, one grisly fingertip at a time. As she reached for the gun, her intestines palpitated, but she forced her arm to remain steady. While she loaded the bullets into the chamber, she thought about how much she had loved Harold, back when his constituent parts were all still interconnected as a human’s should be. It was a shame, really, to have to keep blowing him to bits. But blow him to bits she would continue to do, as often as necessary, until this nightmare of a prom night was over.

To most self-editors, this paragraph would not seem especially problematic. However, to a professional reader, it contains two of the most commonly-repeated structures, the While X was Happening, Y was Occurring and the It Was Z…, both big favorites with the aspiring writing set.

You kids today are into some crazy things, aren’t you?

Standing alone as sentences, either form is perfectly valid, of course; the problem arises when either appears too frequently on the page. Let’s take a look at how the paragraph above would scan to Millicent:

As the car door opened, Bernice swallowed a horrified gasp. It was Harold’s severed hand, dragging itself around the latch mechanism, one grisly fingertip at a time. As she reached for the gun, her intestines palpitated, but she forced her arm to remain steady. While she loaded the bullets into the chamber, she thought about how much she had loved Harold back when his constituent parts were all still interconnected as a human’s should be. It was a shame, really, to have to keep blowing him to bits. But blow him to bits she would continue to do, as often as necessary, until this nightmare of a prom night was over.

See how even spread-out repetition jumps off the page at you, once you’re attuned to it? Millicent — like her boss, and the editors at the publishing house across the street, and even the average contest judge after reading the first handful of entries — is so sensitive to it that she might not even have made it as far as the end of the paragraph.

Stop reading, Millie, stop reading.

Of course, you may strike lucky: your submission may be read by a screener who hasn’t been at it very long, a contest judge brand-new to the game, or an agent whose tolerance for pattern repetition is unusually high. Heck, your work may even land on the desk of that rara avis, the saint who is willing to overlook some minor problems in a manuscript if the writer seems to have promising flair. In any of these cases, you may be able to put off winnowing out pattern repetition until after the book is sold to an editor — who is VERY unlikely to be so forgiving.

I sincerely hope that you shall be so lucky; truly, I do. But do you honestly want to risk it at the submission stage, when the ability to remove the possibility of repetition-based rejection is in fact something you can control?

Because editorial response to this kind of repetition tends to be so strong — I wasn’t kidding about those migraines, alas — you would be well advised to check your first chapter, especially your opening page, for inadvertent pattern repetitions. Actually, since quick-skimming pros tend to concentrate upon the openings of sentences, you can get away with just checking the first few words after every period, in a pinch.

How might a time-pressed aspiring writer go about doing this? Glad you asked.

(1) Sit down with five or ten pages of your manuscript and a number of different colored pens. (Highlighters are dandy for this). Mark each kind of sentence in its own color; reserve a special color for nouns and verbs that turn up more than once per page.

(2) You probably already know what your favorite kinds of sentence are, but it would be an excellent idea to pre-designate colors for not only the ever-popular While X was Happening, Y was Occurring and the It Was… sentences, but also for the X happened and then Y happenedProtagonist did X, Y, and Z. Protagonist went to X, Y, and Z. (repeat as often as necessary), and Gerund Adverb Comma (as in Sitting silently, Hortense felt like a spy.) forms as well, just on general principle.

(3) After you have finished coloring your pages, arrange all of the marked-up pages along some bare surface — against the back of a couch, along a kitchen counter, diagonally across your bed — and take three steps backward. (Sorry, kitty; I didn’t mean to step on your tail. Run, cat, run.)

(4) Scan back through, asking yourself: does one color predominate? If you notice one color turning up many times per page — or two or three times per paragraph — you might want to think about reworking your structures a little. Or perhaps learning a few more.

If this all seems terribly nit-picky to you, well, it is. But the more you can vary the structure and rhythm of your writing, the more interesting it will be for the reader — and, from a professional perspective, the more it will appeal to educated readers. Think about it: good literary fiction very seldom relies heavily upon a single sentence structure throughout an entire text, does it?

You know what kinds of books use the same types of sentences over and over? The ones marketed to consumers with less-developed reading skills. If that is your target readership, great — run with the repetitive structure. (Run, Jane, run! Don’t let Dick stab, stab, stab you.) But for most adult markets, the industry assumes at least a 10th-grade reading level.

Then, too, agency screeners and editorial assistants typically hold liberal arts degrees from pretty good colleges. That’s a long, long way from the reading level that was delighted to watch Dick and Jane running all over the place with Spot, isn’t it?

Let your structural choices be as exciting as the writing contained within them — and let your voice emerge as more than a repetitive collection of your favorite words and sentences. Let your beloved monsters appear rarely enough that their every groan and roar feels like a revelation. And, of course, keep up the good work!

Improving those opening pages, part III: and then there are Millicent’s page 1 pet peeves

woman tied to a train tracklion and tamertommygun1

How have you been enjoying this week’s series on editing page 1 of your manuscript, campers…or is enjoying too strong a word? I’ve been getting such a varied response (ranging, understandably, from thrilled to horrified) from such a wide spectrum of writers (straight nonfiction, memoir, every stripe of fiction) that I’m already toying with making this a regular feature — the first page of the month, perhaps — to give us time and a great excuse to dig deep into the peculiarities and joys of various book categories.

All too often, those of us who teach writing to writers speak as though good writing were good writing, independent of genre, but that’s not always the case. Every book category has its own conventions, after all; what is expected in one may seem downright poky in another. A passive female protagonist might well be a drawback in a mainstream fiction manuscript, for instance, but for a rather wide segment of the WIP (Women in Peril) romance market, a certain amount of passivity is a positive boon.

Doubt that? Okay, to a peril-seeking reader, which would be the more exciting rescue object: the lady tied to a train track while menaced by a lion wielding a Tommy gun, or the bulletproof lady too quick to be lashed down who always carries large steaks in her capacious pockets in case of lion attack?

I’ll leave you to ponder that cosmic mystery on your own. Let’s get back to analyzing our sample first page.

So far, we’ve talked about how Millicent the agency screener might respond to the way this page appears on the page (formatting issues, punctuation, grammar), what clues about the rest of the manuscript she might derive from certain authorial choices (italics usage, word choice, repetition), and book category appropriateness. Today, I want to concentrate on matters of style — which, on the first page of a submission, requires some consideration of the more notorious of Millicent’s pet peeves.

Already, I see some hands raised in the air, clamoring for my attention. “But Anne,” rules lawyers everywhere cry with one voice, “since Millicent is a composite character, the fanciful Author! Author! personification of professional readers’ attitudes toward submissions, how meaningful could it possibly be to talk about her pet peeves? Are they not by definition personal, and thus variable from reader to reader?”

Yes and no, rules lawyers. Yes, pretty much everyone who reads manuscripts for a living harbors at least a couple of individual dislikes — it drives me nuts, for instance, to see She graduated college on the page, as opposed to the more grammatically correct She graduated from college. Have you noticed how common it’s become to ignore the distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs? Not to mention the vicious, civilization-dissolving practice of transmuting perfectly innocent nouns into verbs, presumably to save a couple of characters per sentence — why, just the other day, my weary eyes were insulted by The institute tributed director X in a fairly respectable local newspaper. Would it have killed the article’s writer or his editor to adhere to the longstanding norms of the English language by coughing up the extra character for the less nonsensical The institute paid tribute to director X? And whose bright idea was substituting tonite for tonight, anyway? What great contribution to Western literature do abbreviators believe they are going to be able to achieve with those two saved characters?

Those of us who read for a living tend to cherish our personal pet peeves, as you may see, but there’s not very much an aspiring writer can do to protect herself from running afoul of any given Millicent’s. Or, indeed, from annoying her with your subject matter.

“Oh, God,” Millie mutters, “another romance set in Paris? That’s the third one I’ve seen this week!”

You’re scowling, aren’t you? I’m not at all surprised. Of all of the many aspects of the submission process over which the writer has no control whatsoever, the role of who happens to be screening on the day a particular manuscript arrives in an agency is one of the least understood and most resented by writers. Perhaps with good reason: we’d all like to believe that our manuscripts will receive a fair, impartial reading, regardless of the pet peeves or mood of the screener.

However, there’s just no denying that if you have written a semicolon-heavy literary fiction piece about the many loves of an airline pilot, and the agent of your dreams has just hired a Millicent who simply loathes semicolons, is a dedicated monogamist, and was jilted yesterday by a pilot, the best writing in the world probably is not going to prevent her from rejecting your submission.

Sorry to be the one to break that to you — but an aspiring writer who is aware of the role that personal preference and chance inevitably play in whether a manuscript gets rejected or accepted is, in the long run, going to be significantly happier than one who believes that all Millicents read identically. Ditto with contest entrants; every contest judge brings a few personal preferences to the table. Assuming, as virtually every aspiring writer does when first submitting, querying, and/or entering, that any individual professional reader’s reaction to his work is representative of what EVERY professional reader’s opinion would be is just, well, wrong.

It’s also a strategy notoriously likely to depress aspiring writers into not querying, submitting, or entering widely enough to get their work into publication. If every professional reader’s opinion is identical, fledgling writers are all too apt to reason, why shouldn’t a single rejection — or two, three, or forty-seven — be taken as if it were the entire publishing industry’s reaction to the book in question?

There’s a very good reason, as it happens: screeners are individuals, with personal opinions. So are agents, editors, and contest judges. Keep sending out your work until you find the one predisposed to love it.

But that didn’t answer the rule-mongers’ question, did it? “That’s all very pretty and inspiring,” they concede. “Does that mean I don’t need to worry at all about Millicent’s pet peeves?”

Well, no — certain pet peeves are shared by most professional readers, simply because they turn up so often in manuscript submissions and contest entries. Spotting even one non-doubled dash on a manuscript page leaves many a Millicent gasping with indignation, for instance; a submission without indented paragraphs renders many positively apoplectic. And if you really want to ruin a pro’s day, try submitting something with unnumbered pages.

Hey, standard format is standard for a reason.

Most of the ire-inducing gaffes above are relatively well-known (but if any of them came as a surprise, run, don’t walk, to the HOW TO FORMAT A MANUSCRIPT category on the archive list at right, if only for the sake of Millicent’s blood pressure). I was delighted to see, however, that our sample page 1 included several of the lesser-known ones. Discussion gold!

Okay, so perhaps delighted isn’t a particularly normal response. Had I mentioned that reading manuscripts for a living radically alters how one reads?

Here is our example again; don your Millicent mask and try to ferret out three common screeners’ pet peeves we have not yet discussed. If you want a hint: two of them are dialogue-related.

page 1 example wrong

How did you do? The third in particular might be a tad hard to spot if you didn’t happen to have spent the last six hours reading first pages; certainly, it would be significantly harder to get excited about it. To give you a sense of how exorcized Millicent might have gotten about all three, allow me to stick a Sharpie in her hand and let her have at it:

page 1 edit 4

Thanks, Millie; why don’t you go score yourself a latte and try to calm down a little? I can take it from here.

Now that we’re alone again, be honest: in your quick scan of the page, had you noticed all of the issues that so annoyed Millicent? Any of them?

If it’s the latter, don’t be embarrassed — very few readers would have, at least consciously, and self-editors. If you’re caught up in the characters’ lifeworld (as Millicent hopes you will convince her to be by the bottom of page 1), none of these questions is likely to occur to you. Let’s take her concerns one at a time, so we may understand why each bugged her.

1. Opening with an unidentified speaker.
I’m really glad that our generous example-provider chose to open the manuscript this way, because it’s a very, very popular choice: depending upon the fiction categories Millicent’s boss represents, she might see anywhere from a handful to dozens of submissions with dialogue as their first lines on any given day. A good third of those will probably not identify the speaker right off the bat.

Why would the vast majority of Millicents frown upon that choice, other than the sheer fact that they see it so very often? A very practical reason: before they can possibly make the case to their respective boss agents that this manuscript is about an interesting protagonist faced with an interesting conflict, they will have to (a) identify the protagonist, (b) identify the primary conflict s/he faces, and (c) determine whether (a) and (b) are interesting enough to captivate a reader for three or four hundred pages. So when they pick up page 1, they’re looking for some pretty specific information.

Given that mission, it’s bound to miff them if they can’t tell if the first line of the book is spoken by the protagonist — or, indeed, anyone else. In this case, the reader isn’t let in on the secret of the speaker’s identity for another 6 lines. That’s an eternity, in screeners’ terms — especially when, as here, the first character named turns out not to be the speaker. And even on line 7, the reader is left to assume that Emma was the initial speaker, even though logically, any one of the everyone mentioned in line 7 could have said it.

So let me ask the question that Millicent would almost certainly be asking herself by the middle of the third question: since presumably both of the characters introduced here knew who spoke that first line, what precisely did the narrative gain by NOT identifying the speaker for the reader’s benefit on line 1?

99% of the time, the honest answer will be, “Not much.” So why force Millicent to play a guessing game, if it’s not necessary to the scene?

Trust me on this one: a Millicent in a hurry tends to dislike guessing games, especially on page 1. Go ahead and tell her who is speaking, what’s going on, who the players are, and what that unnamed thing that jumps out of the closet and terrifies the protagonist looks like. If you want to create suspense, withholding information from the reader is not Millicent’s favorite means of generating it.

That’s not to say, however, that your garden-variety Millicent has a fetish for identifying every speaker every time. In fact, she regards the old-fashioned practice of including some version of he said with every speech as, well, old-fashioned. Not to mention unnecessary. Which leads me to…

2. Including unnecessary tag lines.
Unless there is some genuine doubt about who is saying what when (as in the first line of text here), most tag lines — he said, she asked, they averred — aren’t actually necessary for clarity. Let’s face it, quotation marks around sentences are pretty effective at alerting readers to the fact that those sentences were spoken aloud. And frankly, unless tag lines carry an adverb or indicates tone, they usually don’t add much to a scene other than clarity about who is saying what when.

So why include them, in instances where any reasonably intelligent reader would already be able to figure out who the speaker is?

That’s a serious question, you know. Most editors will axe them on sight — although again, the pervasiveness of tag lines in published books does vary from category to category. Since most adult fiction minimizes their use, novelists who have worked with an editor on a past book project will usually omit them in subsequent manuscripts.

So common is this self-editing trick amongst the previously published that to a well-trained Millicent or experienced contest judge, limiting tag line use is usually taken as a sign of professionalism. Which means, in practice, that the opposite is true as well: a manuscript peppered with unnecessary tag lines tends to strike the pros as under-edited.

Paragraph 2 of our example illustrates why beautifully. Take another gander at it then ask yourself: at the end of a five-line paragraph largely concerned with how Casey is feeling, wouldn’t it have been pretty astonishing if the speaker in the last line had been anybody but Casey?

The same principle applies to paragraph 4. Since the paragraph opens with Casey swallowing, it’s obvious that she is both the speaker and the thinker later in the paragraph — and the next one. (Although since a rather hefty percentage of Millicents frown upon the too-frequent use of single-line non-dialogue paragraphs — as I mentioned earlier in this series, it takes at least two sentences to form a legitimate narrative paragraph in English, technically — I would advise reserving them for instances when the single sentence is startling enough to warrant breaking the rule for dramatic impact. In this instance, I don’t think the thought line is astonishing enough to rise to that standard.)

Starting to see how Millicent considers a broad array of little things in coming up with her very quick assessment of page 1 and the submission? Although she may not spend very much time on a submission before she rejects it, what she does read, she reads very closely.

Sort of changes your mental picture of how and why the average submission gets rejected on page 1, doesn’t it? Professional reading doesn’t miss much. Remember, agents, editors, and their screeners tend not to read like other people: instead of reading a page or even a paragraph before making up their minds, they consider each sentence individually; if they like it, they move on to the next.

All of this is imperative to keep in mind when revising your opening pages. Page 1 not only needs to hook Millicent’s interest and be free of technical errors; every line, every sentence needs to encourage her to keep reading.

In fact, it’s not a bad idea to think of page 1′s primary purpose (at the submission stage, anyway) as convincing a professional reader to turn the first page and read on. In pursuit of that laudable goal, let’s consider Millicent’s scrawl at the bottom of the page.

3. Having enough happen on page 1 that a reader can tell what the book is about.
This is a really, really common problem for first pages — and first chapters of both novels and memoirs, if I’m being honest about it. A lot of writers like to take some time to warm up…so much so that it’s not all that rare to discover a perfectly marvelous first line for the book in the middle of page 4.

Then, too, opening pages often get bogged down in backstory or character development, rather than jumping right into some relevant conflict. US-based agents and editors tend to get a trifle impatient with stories that are slow to start. (UK and Canadian agents and editors seem quite a bit friendlier to the gradual lead-in.) Their preference for a page 1 that hooks the reader into conflict right off the bat has clashed, as one might have predicted, with the rise of the Jungian Heroic Journey as a narrative structure.

You know what I’m talking about, right? Since the release of the first Star Wars movie, it’s been one of the standard screenplay structures: the story starts in the everyday world; the protagonist is issued a challenge that calls him into an unusual conflict that tests his character and forces him to confront his deepest fears; he meets allies and enemies along the way; he must grow and change in order to attain his goal — and in doing so, he changes the world. At least the small part of it to which he returns at the end of the story.

It’s a lovely structure for a storyline, actually, flexible enough to fit an incredibly broad swathe of tales. But can anyone spot a SLIGHT drawback for applying this structure to a novel or memoir?

Hint: you might want to take another peek at today’s example before answering that question.

Very frequently, this structure encourages writers to present the ordinary world at the beginning of the story as, well, ordinary. The extraordinary circumstances to come, they figure, will seem more extraordinary by contrast. Over the course of an entire novel, that’s pretty sound reasoning (although one of the great tests of a writer is to write about the mundane in a fascinating way, I think), but it can inadvertently create an opening scene that is less of a grabber than it could be.

Or, as I suspect is happening in this case, a page 1 that might not be sufficiently reflective of the pacing or excitement level of the rest of the book. And that’s a real shame, since I happen to know that something happens on page 2 that would make Millicent’s eyebrows shoot skyward so hard that they would knock her bangs out of place.

But I’m getting ahead of myself, amn’t I? We’re not going to get into the next scene until next time.

So let’s stick to our moral for the day: since submissions and contest entries are evaluated one line at a time, holding back on page 1 might not make the best strategic sense. Remember, Millicent is looking for an interesting protagonist facing an interesting conflict — appearing as soon as possible in the manuscript. You might want to invest some revision time in making sure your first page gives all that to her.

Just a suggestion. Or three. Keep up the good work!